This fourth instalment looks into how our negative emotions can interfere with our ability to lose fat through excessive levels of Cortisol and other stress hormones present in our bodies.
Links and References:
1 Jones, T.L. Definition of stress. In J.J. Robert-McComb (Ed.), Eating Disorders in Women and Children: Prevention, Stress Management, and Treatment (pp. 89- 100). Boca Raton, FL: CRS Press, 2001.
2 Henry, J.P. Biological basis of the stress response. NIPS 8: 69-73, 1993.
3 Ely, D.L. Organization of cardiovascular and neurohumoral responses to stress: implications for health and disease. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences (Reprinted from Stress) 771:594-608, 1995.
4 McEwen, B.S. The brain as a target of endocrine hormones. In Neuroendocrinology. Krieger and Hughs, Eds.: 33-42. Sinauer Association, Inc., Massachusetts, 1980.
5 Rosmond, R., C. Bouchard, & P. Bjorntorp. A C-1291G polymorphism in the _ 2A-adrenergic receptor gene (ADRA2A) promoter is associated with cortisol escape from dexamethasone and elevated glucose levels. Journal of Internal Medicine 251: 252-257, 2002.
6 Vicennati, V., L. Ceroni, L. Gagliardi, et al. Response of the hypothalamic- pituitary-adrenocortical axis to high-protein/fat and high carbohydrate meals in women with different obesity phenotypes. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 87(8) 3984-3988, 2002.
7 Wallerius, S., R. Rosmond, T. Ljung, et al. Rise in morning saliva cortisol is associated with abdominal obesity in men: a preliminary report. Journal of Endocrinology Investigation 26: 616-619, 2003.
8 Epel, E.S., B. McEwen, T. Seeman, et al. Stress and body shape: stress-induced cortisol secretion is consistently greater among women with central fat.
Psychosomatic Medicine 62:623-632, 2000.
9 Tomlinson, J.W. & P.M. Stewart. The functional consequences of 11_- hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase expression in adipose tissue. Hormone and Metabolism Research 34: 746-751, 2002.
10 Andrews, R.C., O. Herlihy, D.E.W. Livingstone, et al. Abnormal cortisol metabolism and tissue sensitivity to cortisol in patients with glucose intolerance.The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology 87(12): 5587-5593, 2002.
11 Morris, K.L. & M.B. Zemel, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 modulation of adipocyte glucocorticoid function. Obesity Research 13: 670-677, 2005.
12 Epel, E., R. Lapidus, B. McEwen, et al. Stress may add bite to appetite in women: a laboratory study of stress-induced cortisol and eating behavior.Psychoneuroendocrinology 26: 37-49, 2001.
13 Cavagnini, F., M. Croci, P. Putignano, et al. Glucocorticoids and neuroendocrine function. International Journal of Obesity 24: S77-S79, 2000.
14 Mariemi, J. E., Kronholm, S. Aunola, et al. Visceral fat and psychosocial stress in identical twins discordant for obesity. Journal of Internal Medicine 251: 35-43, 2002.
15 Rosmond, R., M.F. Dallman, & P. Bjorntorp. Stress-related cortisol secretion in men: relationships with abdominal obesity and endocrine, metabolic, and hemodynamic abnormalities. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
83: 1853-1859, 1998.
16 Heyward, V.H. Advanced Fitness Assessment and Exercise Prescription. 4th ed.
Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics, 2002.