Hypnosis and Alzheimer’s Disease/Dementia


dementia

incidence-of-alzheimers

I have seen first hand the effects of dementia on my grandmother, and it was horrendous to see the person I knew and loved fade away. In the last few months of her life, the occasions when she recognised me where less and less frequent and it was such a joy when the light was flicked back on and recognition of who I was flooded across her face. It was wonderful for both of us and in those moments she knew what was happening to her and she was completely lucid and aware, despite the tinge of sadness we made the most of these moments when I visited her. I used hypnosis with her to focus her on the many fun memories she had and also to help bring her back out of her delusions and sometimes, these delusions were upsetting for her, so I used hypnosis to distract and re-focus her attention onto positive, happy memories.

This is such a cruel disease that robs people of their identity, personality and soul and is equally traumatic for their families as they watch them fade away and much more research is needed to enable us to provide better treatment and care for those diagnosed.

Dementia-facts

Study 1: Hypnosis Can Improve Seven Aspects of Quality of Life for Individuals with Dementia
Alternative Approaches to Supporting Individuals With Dementia: Enhancing Quality of Life Through Hypnosis
http://dementiatherapyspecialists.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/08/Alzheimers-Care-Today-article.pdf

Results: This pilot study explored the use of hypnosis to influence 7 aspects of quality of life in individuals with dementia: concentration, relaxation, motivation, activities of daily living, immediate memory, memory of significant events, and socialization. The results indicate that hypnosis has a beneficial impact on quality of life on both a short-term and long-term basis. Unlike the other study participants, the participants in the hypnosis group showed improvement in all 7 items – some of which were maintained over a period of time, such as 21 months or more.

The study authors hypothesize that perhaps an individual with dementia is aware of his or her gradual loss of abilities. That awareness leads to increased levels of anxiety and depression – which are known to involve active cognitive processing. Because the individual’s limited cognitive resources are being used up by anxiety and depression, even greater loss of memory, motivation and ability takes place. The authors further hypothesize that hypnosis may decrease an individual with dementia’s anxiety and depression (through positive suggestion and relaxation), which – in turn – may free up otherwise engaged resources so they are available for the individual to use to successfully accomplish cognitive tasks.

Notes: Eighteen participants were recruited from 2 care homes and were randomly allocated into 1 of 3 groups, the hypnosis group (HG), the discussion group (DG), and the treatment-as-usual group (TG). The HG received weekly individual sessions of hypnosis carried out in their single-occupancy bedrooms at their residential or nursing home. Each session lasted approximately 1 hour. Thus, over the 9-month period each HG participant received a total of 36 hours of hypnosis in 36 sessions. Prior to the first hypnosis session, each participant received 1-hour consultation and interview to customize the terminology used during the hypnosis sessions. This ensured that the language used was familiar and personalized for each participant and to ensure comprehension of suggestions that were to be used.

Participants were also introduced to the process of progressive muscle relaxation. Participants were induced into hypnosis in 3 phases:

(i) eye closure

(ii) progressive muscle relaxation, starting at the scalp and moving progressively down toward the feet

(iii) a permissive induction. Permissive inductions “ask” each participant to allow oneself to become more relaxed. After deepening, the HG participants were given direct suggestions relating to the 7 items described earlier, along with additional “CRC” suggestions (Calmness, Relaxation, and Confidence).

health-alzheimers

Examples of the statements are provided below.

  • At the end of this session, and between now and the next time I see you, you will feel more relaxed and at ease, more motivated to do the things you want to do.
  • You will have clarity of thought; you will be able to concentrate for longer periods of time.
  • You will have fewer concerns and less feelings of anxiousness.
  • Spending time with others will have meaning and you will want to spend time chatting with others.

For each of the 7 items, all participants were rated on a 7-point scale, assessed once at the start of the study period and then at weekly intervals.

Alzheimer’s Care Today 2007; 8(4):321-331
By: Simon Duff, Ph.D., is a chartered forensic psychologist and a trained hypnotherapist, working at the Division of Clinical Psychology, University of Liverpool, and the Mersey Forensic Psychology Service, Liverpool, United Kingdom. Daniel Nightingale, Ph.D., was first trained in social work, then as a registered nurse in learning disabilities before completing a doctorate in both learning disabilities and transitional shock. He is a trained hypnotherapist and head of dementia services at Southern Cross Healthcare, The Alton Centre, Northampton, United Kingdom.

The Positive Physical and Psychological Effects of ProArgi9 Plus: L-Arginine and Nitric Oxide


Proargi9+     Enhance Your Health With Synergy

We’ve known about the health benefits of nitric oxide for a long time, even before scientists were aware of its presence in the human body. Nitroglycerin, a drug that works on nitric oxide pathways, was adopted as a medical therapy for angina and high blood pressure in the 1880s, yet another century passed before we really understood how and why it worked.

The discovery of nitric oxide and its biological activities was so astounding that the 1998 Nobel Prize was awarded to the three pharmacologists who identified and furthered our understanding of this dynamic molecule and turned our understanding of the cause of cardiovascular disease upside down. Nitric Oxide performs a number of different tasks and has numerous benefits and I also want to explain how you can increase its production to improve numerous aspects of your own health.

Nitric Oxide’s Effects and Benefits
Nitric oxide is a key signalling molecule throughout the human body, without it we would die. It is produced by the endothelial cells lining the arteries, it penetrates the underlying smooth muscles and acts as a potent vasodilator that relaxes the arteries. Therefore, nitric oxide plays a critical role in blood pressure and overall circulation. It also keeps the endothelium in shape by curbing inflammation and oxidative stress.

Unfortunately, atherosclerosis, the underlying cause of heart disease and other vascular disorders, is characterised by endothelial dysfunction and a limited capacity to produce nitric oxide. It’s a vicious cycle. Diseased arteries can’t generate enough protective nitric oxide, and low nitric oxide levels set the stage for further damage, hypertension, and increased risk of cardiac events.

This explains why nitroglycerin is such an effective therapy for angina. It triggers nitric oxide production, which dilates narrowed coronary arteries, improving circulation and delivering much-needed oxygen to the heart muscle. Restoring nitric oxide availability also lowers blood pressure and helps treat erectile dysfunction. In fact, the popular erectile dysfunction drugs Viagra, Cialis, and Levitra work on nitric oxide pathways to increase blood flow to the penis and substantially improve erections.

How Nitric Oxide Helps
Additionally, this essential compound is generated in the brain, where it’s involved in neurotransmission. That’s why nitric oxide benefits also include protection against dementia and other neurodegenerative disorders. Nitric oxide is synthesised in the white blood cells as well and is used as a weapon against bacteria, fungi, parasites, and aberrant cancer cells.

In the gastrointestinal tract, it relaxes smooth muscle cells and helps regulate intestinal peristalsis and the secretion of mucus and gastric acid. Nitric oxide is also involved in insulin signalling, bone remodelling, respiratory function, ATP (energy) utilisation, and mitochondrial biogenesis, or the creation of new cellular “energy factories.” Since there are so many benefits of nitric oxide, it makes sense for all of us to boost our production of this essential compound.

Original source: http://www.drwhitaker.com/boost-nitric-oxide-levels-to-improve-health/

Goodbye Heart Disease, Diabetes and Strokes

The nitric oxide derived from L-Arginine is both directly and indirectly implicated in practically every cellular response and health condition imaginable, from the cardiovascular system to the immune system, and hormone function to nerve function. Although this is not an exhaustive list of possible applications for this amino acid, the following are the primary scientifically backed reasons that anyone, even healthy people, must consider adding L-Arginine to their health and wellness routine.

From a personal perspective, I have been taking ProArgi9 Plus for almost three years now and  began taking it as I had recently been diagnosed with a minor heart condition. Now almost three years on I hardly notice it at all, whereas previously it was very evident at numerous points through the day as my heart randomly tried to escape through my chest and caused shortness of breath and dizziness.

Also my father, who is now 70, has had heart trouble and been prescribed Warfarin etc and Statins. After about 12 months consistently taking ProArgi9 Plus he no longer requires Warfarin and has stopped taking the Statins. In combination with smaller food portions, healthier food, regular exercise of 20-30 minutes max, 5 times per week he is in better shape than he has been in quite a few years.

Proargi9+ & PDR

I am optimistic that the GMC will some day recognise the validity and efficacy of ProArgi9 Plus as has the AMA, because in the USA ProArgi9 Plus is the only non-pharmaceutical health supplement to be included in the Physicians Desk Reference (PDR) and GP’s there can prescribe it to their patients

  1. ProArgi9 Plus is one thousand times more powerful than any naturally occurring antioxidant in the body. L-Arginine`s antioxidant properties support various body systems and may protect against heart disease, stroke, cancer, and diabetes, as well as slowing premature ageing. [1, 2 ]
  2. ProArgi9 Plus offers wide-ranging cardiovascular support, including controlling blood pressure [3, 4] and plaque formation. Nitric oxide keeps arteries relaxed and pliable for normal blood pressure, preventing hypertension and angina. [5]
  3. ProArgi9 Plus enhances memory, [6] particularly long-term memory, and may help to reverse the effects of dementia and Alzheimer’s disease. [7]
  4. ProArgi9 Plus boosts human growth hormone (HGH) production, which has anti-ageing properties. [8]
  5. ProArgi9 Plus enhances communication of messenger cells between nerves and the brain. [9]
  6. ProArgi9 Plus may help improve immune function [10] and fight bacterial infections. [11]
  7. ProArgi9 Plus may help in the treatment and prevention of diabetes since many disease complications, including poor circulation and blindness, are vascular in nature. L-Arginine is also found to regulate insulin secretion in the pancreas. [12,13]
  8. ProArgi9 Plus may inhibit the division and proliferation of cancer cells. [14,15]
  9. ProArgi9 Plus helps with cholesterol control by lowering serum and LDL cholesterol levels. [16]
  10. ProArgi9 Plus enhances male sexual performance by treating vascular erectile dysfunction (ED). [17]
  11. ProArgi9 Plus anticoagulant abilities reduce clotting to lower heart attack and stroke risk. [18]
  12. ProArgi9 Plus reduces pregnancy-related hypertension, a risk factor for both the expecting mother and the unborn child. [19]
  13. ProArgi9 Plus is useful in the treatment of asthma by opening pulmonary pathways for easier breathing and the treatment of lung disorders. [20, 21]
  14. ProArgi9 Plus relaxes hypertonic sphincter muscles, preventing and healing haemorrhoids. [22]
  15. ProArgi9 Plus boosts lean muscle mass and preserves bone density by encouraging HGH production, [23] which also leads to a reduction in fatty tissue. Because of these properties, it may be useful in weight management and strength training.
  16. ProArgi9 Plus can help offset cardiovascular and lung damage caused by tobacco use,[24] since nitric oxide levels in smokers are less than half of those found in nonsmokers. [25]
  17. ProArgi9 Plus helps to accelerate wound healing [26] and post-surgery recovery. [27] Research has shown it is useful in treating burn wounds [28] and stimulates wound healing in the elderly. [29]
  18. ProArgi9 Plus may be useful in enhancing athletic performance due to its ability to boost exercise tolerance, [30] its beneficial effect on the lungs, and its effect on HGH levels. Which helps with building lean muscle tissue.
  19. ProArgi9 Plus may be used to improve the function of the prostate. [31]
  20. ProArgi9 Plus may prevent and possibly reverse the effects of osteoporosis by positively affecting bone mass. [32]
  21. ProArgi9 Plus has been used in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome [33} and to reduce the occurrence of ulcers, particularly stress-related, without affecting gastric acid production. [34,35]
  22. ProArgi9 Plus may improve renal function and slow the progression of renal disease and age-related chronic renal failure. [36,37] Arginine`s protective effect on the kidneys may also benefit those with diabetes.

Source References:

  1. Kochupurackal P, et al. Nitric oxide: an antioxidant and neuro-protector. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 2002; 962:389-401.
  2. Kumar CA, Das UN. Lipid peroxides, antioxidants and nitric oxide in patients with pre-eclampsia and essential hypertension. Med Sci-Monitor. 2000 Sep-Oct; 6(5):901-7.
  3. Brown, M.D., Dengel, D.R., Supiano, M.A. Nitric Oxide Biomarkers are Associated with the Blood Pressure-Lowering Effects of Dietary Sodium Restriction in Older Hypertensives. Circulation (Abstract I). 1997; 96:I-539.
  4. Rosano, G.M.C., Tanina, G., Cerquetani, E., Leonardo, F., Pelliccia, F., Bonfigli, B., and Chierchia, F.L. L-arginine Improves Endothelial Function in Newly Diagnosed Hypertensives. The Journal of the American College of Cardiology (Supplement A). 1998; 31:262a
  5. Moncada, F., Palmer, R.M.J., Higgs, E.A. The Discovery of Nitric Oxide as the Endogenous Nitro vasodilator. Hypertension. 1988; 12:365-72.
  6. Pautler EL. The possible role and treatment of deficient microcirculation regulation in age-associated memory impairment. Med Hypotheses. 1994 Jun; 42(6):363-6.
  7. Tarkowski E, et al. Intrathecal release of nitric oxide in Alzheimer’s disease and vascular dementia. Dement Geriatric Cogn Disord. 2000 Nov-Dec; 11(6):322-6.
  8. Ghigo E, Arvat E, Gianotti L, et al. Hypothalamic growth hormone-insulin-like growth facto-1 axis across the human life span. J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab.2000; 13 Suppl 6:1493-502.
  9. Fried R, Merrell WC. The Arginine Solution. New York, NY. Warner Books, 1999.
  10. Efron D, Barbul A. Role of arginine in immuno-nutrition. J Gastroentol. 2000; 35 Suppl 12:20-3..
  11. Korting GE, Smith SD, Wheeler MA, Weiss RM, Foster HE. A randomized double-blind study of oral L-arginine for treatment of interstitial cystitis. J Urol. 1999 Feb; 161(2):558-65.
  12. Piatti PM, Monti LD, Valsecchi G, et al. Long term oral L-arginine administration improves peripheral and hepatic insulin sensitivity in type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2001 May; 24(5):875-80.
  13. Mohan IK, Cas UN. Effects of L-arginine-nitric oxide system on chemical induced diabetes mellitus. Free Radic Biol Med. 1998 Nov 1; 25(7):757-65.
  14. Heys SD, et al. Dietary supplementation with L-arginine: Modulation of tumour infiltrating lymphocytes in patients with colorectal cancer. Br J Surg. 1997 Feb; 84(2):238-41.
  15. Brittenden J, et al. Dietary supplementation with L-arginine in patients with breast cancer (> 4cm.) receiving multi-modality treatment: report of a feasibility study. Br J Cancer. 1994 May; 69(5):918-21.
  16. Khedara A, Kawai Y Kayashita J Kato N. Feeding rats the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, L-N(omega) nitroarginine, elevates serum triglycerides and cholesterol and lowers hepatic fatty acid oxidation. J Nutr. 1996 Oct; 126(10):2563-7.
  17. Chen J, Wollman Y, Chernichovsky T, et al. Effect of high dose nitric oxide donor L-arginine in men with organic erectile dysfunction. BJU Int. 1999 Feb; 83(3):269-73.
  18. Wolf A, et al. Dietary L-arginine supplementation normalises platelet aggregation in hypercholesterolemic humans. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1997 Mar 1; 29(3):479.
  19. Podjarny, E., et al. Pregnancy-induced hypertension in rats with adriamycin nephropathy is associated with inadequate production of nitric oxide. Hypertension. 1997; 29:986-991.
  20. De Gouw HW, Verbruggen MB, Twiss IM, Sterk PJ. Effect of oral L-arginine on airway hyper-responsiveness to histamine in asthma. Thorax. 1999 Nov; 54(11):1033-5.
  21. De Gouw HW, Marshall-Partridge SJ, et al. Role of nitric oxide in the airway response to exercise in healthy and asthmatic subjects. J Appl Physiol. 2001 Feb; 90(2):586-92.
  22. Fried R, Merrell WC. The Arginine Solution. New York, New York. Warner Books, 1999. pp 4-5.
  23. Stevens BR, Godfrey MD, Kaminski TW, Braith RW. High intensity dynamic human muscle performance enhanced by a metabolic intervention. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2000 Dec; 32(12):2102-8.
  24. Heitzer, T., Just, H., and Munzell, T. Antioxidant Vitamin C Improves Endothelium Function in Chronic Smokers. Circulation. 1996; 94:9.
  25. Zeiher, A.M., Schachinger, V., and Minners, J. Long-Term Cigarette Smoking Impairs Endothelium-Dependent Coronary Arterial Vasodilator Function. Circulation. 1995; 92:1094-1100.
  26. Barbul A, et al. Arginine enhances wound healing and lymphocyte immune responses in humans. Surgery. 1990 Aug; 108(2):331-6; discussion 336-7.
  27. Braga M, Gianotti L Raedelli G, et al. Perioperative immuno-nutrition in patients undergoing cancer surgery: results of a randomised double-blind phase 3 trial. Arch Surg. 1999 Apr; 134(4):428-33.
  28. De-Souza DA, Greene LJ. Pharmacological nutrition after burn injury. J of Nutri. 1998 May; 128(5):797-803.
  29. Kirk SJ, et al Arginine stimulates wound healing and immune function in elderly humans. Surgery. 1993 Aug; 114(2):155-9; discussion 160.
  30. Bednarz B, Wolk R, Chamiec T, et al. Effects of oral L-arginine supplementation on exercised induced QT dispersion and exercise tolerance in stable anginapectoris. Int J Cardiol. 2000 Sep 15; 75(2-3): 205-10.
  31. Aikawa K, Yokota T, et al. Endogenous nitric oxide-mediated relaxation and nitrinergic innervation in the rabbit prostate: the change with aging. Prostate. 2001 Jun 15; 48(1):40-6.
  32. Fini M, et al. Effect of l-lysine and L-arginine on primary osteoblast cultures from normal and osteopenic rats. Biomed Pharmacother. 2001 May; 55(4):213-21.
  33. Sahin AS, Atalik KE, Gunel E, Dogan N. Nonadrenergic, noncholinergic responses of the human colon smooth muscle and the role of K+channels in these responses. Methods Find Exp Clin Pharmacol. 2001 Jan-Feb; 23(1):13-7.
  34. Ohta Y, Nishida K., Protective effect of l-arginine against stress-induced gastric mucosal lesions in rats and its relation to nitric acid-mediated inhibition of neutrophil infiltration. Pharmacal Res. 2001 Jun; 43(6):535-41.
  35. Khattab MM, Gad MZ, Abdallah D. Protective role of nitric oxide in indo- methacin- induced gastric ulceration by a mechanism independent of gastric acid secretion. Pharmacol Res. 2001 May; 43(5):463-7.
  36. De Nicola L, Bellizzi V, Minutolo R, et al. Randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled study of arginine supplementation in chronic renal failure. Kidney Int. 1999 Aug; 56(2):674-84.
  37. Reckelhoff JF, et al. Long-term dietary supplementation with L-arginine prevents age related reduction in renal function. Am J Physiol. 1997 Jun; 272(6 Pt 2):1768-74.

Hypnosis and Allergies


Allergic reactions

Study 1: Hypnosis and Allergies – Skin Responses
Effect of hypnosis on allergic skin responses in asthma and hayfever.
http://www.bmj.com/highwire/filestream/228584/field_highwire_article_pdf/0/1145

Results: A significant diminution in the size of the weal was obtained in the hypnosis group at the lower two strengths of allergen. In the second part of the investigation, all participants were hypnotized and experienced a similar decrease.

Notes: Forty-seven subjects with known skin sensitivity to pollen and/or house-dust were divided into five groups and tested with four strengths of allergen. The prick-test method was employed. In the first part of the investigation a group of unhypnotized subjects were compared with a group who had suggestions made under hypnosis that their skin reactions to the allergen would not occur when tested a second time. In the second part of the investigation the subjects were divided into three groups. All were hypnotized, no suggestions regarding skin reactions were given to one group, the second group were given suggestions that only on one arm would the skin reactions be less or not recur, and in the third group the suggestion was made about the reactions on both arms. There was found to be a similar decrease in the response to prick-tests after hypnosis in all three groups.

Brit. Med. J. 1964:114S.1 148.
By: L. Fry, A. A. Mason, R. S. Pearson, Kings College Hospital, London

Study 2: Use of Hypnosis for Allergies Influenced by Psychological Events or Fear/Anxiety
Abreaction During Systematic Desensitization Under Hypnosis for Food Allergy [translated from Japanese].
http://ci.nii.ac.jp/naid/110001119115

Results: The authors of this paper state that it is well known that some food allergies are heavily influenced by psychological events and that fear and anxiety can play a role in this process. Then they describe the case of a 52-year-old woman who was admitted to hospital because of an allergic reaction caused by eating fish. She had only recently developed this allergy and when the authors of this study used hypnosis to uncover the cause, they found it was linked to the fear and anger she felt towards her ex-husband and her children’s attempt to get her to reconcile with him. After this fear and anger was released during hypnosis she no longer continued to have an allergy to fish.

Japanese Society of Psychosomatic Medicine 34(4); 329-333, 1994
By: I. Junko, M. Yoichi, A. Hiroyuki, T. Hideki, N. Tetsuya
Ishimoto Junko, Department of Psychosomatic Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Kyushu University
Matsuoka Yoichi, Health Administration Center, University of the Ryukyus
Aoki Hiroyuki, Department of Psychosomatic Medicine, Kita-Kyushu Municipal Medical Center
Teshima Hideki, Department of Psychosomatic Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Kyushu University
Nakagawa Tetsuya, Department of Studies on Life-Long Development and Education, Fukuoka Prefectural University

types-of-allergies

Study 3: Self-Hypnosis for Hay Fever

Effect of Self-Hypnosis on Hay Fever Symptoms – A Randomised Controlled Intervention Study.
http://bscw.rediris.es/pub/bscw.cgi/d4527335/Langewitz-Effect_self_hypnosis_hay_fever_symptoms.pdf

Results: After the first allergy season was over, the subjects using self-hypnosis reported that they experienced (on average) a 29.2 % reduction of their symptoms and a 26.2% improvement in their overall well-being, when compared to a control group. And while there were no further improvements between the first and second year of the study, the gains that were made the first year were maintained.

Notes: Seventy-nine subjects who were moderately to severely allergic to birch pollen and grass were taught how to practice self-hypnosis to decrease their allergic reactions and increase their feelings of well-being. The researchers managed to follow 52 of them over the next two years (or two complete allergy seasons).

Psychother Psychosom 2005;74:165-172
By: W. Langewitza, Division of Psychosomatic Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine
Jan Izakovicb, Allergy Unit, Department of Dermatology, University Hospital Basel
Jane Wylerc, Allergy Unit, Department of Dermatology, University Hospital BaseL
Christian Schindlerd, Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland

Study 4: Hypnotically Induced Analgesia for Flare Reactions
The Effect of Hypnotically Induced Analgesia on Flare Reaction of the Cutaneous Histamine Prick Test.
http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/BF00371950#page-1

Results: Participants reported a 71.7% reduction in the pain during hypnosis. The researchers also noted that there was a significant reduction in the histamine flare area when the subject was hypnotized (as compared to the size of the histamine flare area that occurred in the pre and post hypnosis tests).

Notes: Ten highly hypnotizable subjects were recruited for this study. They were given a histamine prick test (which will cause a painful red welt to form on the skin) before, during and after a single hypnosis session (where they were given the hypnotic suggestion to experience analgesia in their arm). The subjects rated their feeling of pain on a visual analogue scale and reported a 71.7% reduction in the pain during hypnosis. The researchers also noted that there was a significant reduction in the histamine flare area when the subject was hypnotized (as compared to the size of the histamine flare area that occurred in the pre and post hypnosis tests).

Archives of Dermatological Research, Vol 282(8) Dec. 1990: 539-43
By: R. Zachariae, Institute of Psychology, University of Aarhus, Denmark
P. Bjerring, Dept. of Dermatology, Marselisborg Hospital, Denmark

Study 5: Hypnosis can Decrease or even Increase Allergic Skin Reactions
Increase and Decrease of Delayed Cutaneous Reactions Obtained By Hypnotic Suggestions During Sensitization Studies On Dinitrochlorobenzene and Diphenylcyclopropenone.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8457027

Results: The researchers found a significant difference in the allergic skin reaction between these two groups described below. Proving that hypnosis can both increase and decrease an allergic reaction.

Notes: Sixteen highly hypnotizable subjects were recruited to test how their skin reacted to two drugs (DNCB and DCP). They were randomly assigned to two groups. Using a combination of direct suggestion and guided imagery, hypnosis was used to heighten the immunological response to these drugs in one group and to reduce it in the other group. They were then sent them home and only brought back one month later for the actual skin-prick test.

Allergy Vol. 48(1):6-11
By: R. Zachariae, Institute of Psychology, University of Aarhus, Denmark
P. Bjerring, Dept. of Dermatology, Marselisborg Hospital, Denmark

Study 6: Hypnotizing a Person to Feel Sadness to Increase Allergic Reaction
Skin Reactions to Histamine of Healthy Subjects After Hypnotically Induced Emotions Of Sadness, Anger, and Happiness.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11488666

Results: The authors of this study begin by noting some of the anecdotal reports that claim emotions can increase allergic reactions. In an attempt to verify this, they recruited 15 highly hypnotizable subjects and gave them each a histamine prick test and then measured the size of the flare-up on the subject’s skin at specific intervals. They then repeated this after hypnotizing these subjects and inducing three emotions: sadness, happiness and anger. Happiness and anger did not cause any real changes. However, when they hypnotically induced feelings of sadness they found that there was a significant increase in the allergic reaction.

Allergy Vol. 56(8):734-740
By: R. Zachariae, Institute of Psychology, University of Aarhus, Denmark
M. M. Jørgensen, H. Egekvist, P. Bjerring, Dept. of Dermatology, Marselisborg Hospital, Denmark.

Hypnosis and Agoraphobia


What is Agoraphobia?

Agoraphobia is a very complex phobia usually manifesting itself as a collection of inter-linked conditions.

For example many agoraphobics also fear being left alone (monophobia), dislike being in any situation where they feel trapped (exhibiting claustrophobia type tendencies) and fear travelling away from their ‘safe’ place, usually the home. Some agoraphobics find they can travel more easily if they have a trusted friend or family member accompanying them, however this can quickly lead to dependency on their carer.

The severity of agoraphobia varies enormously between sufferers from those who are housebound, even room-bound, to those who can travel specific distances within a defined boundary. It is not a fear of open spaces as many people think.

Agoraphobia image

See more at: AnxietyUK

As always I am very interested to hear other opinions and experiences around this subject.

Study 1: Case Study of Hypnotherapy for Agoraphobia
Agoraphobia: A case study in hypnotherapy
http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/00207147108407147

Results: Based on the described case study, the author advocates a psychodynamically oriented rather than technique-centered approach to hypnotherapy to successfully treat agoraphobia.

Notes: A 58-year-old woman with a 43-year history of agoraphobia was treated with ego-supportive direct suggestion and hypnoanalytic techniques. Literature pertaining to etiological factors and treatment problems is cited. Pertinent details of the patient’s recent and past history are presented. The treatment plan, course of therapy, and outcome are discussed in the context of limited therapeutic goals and anticipated successful results.

International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, Volume 19, Issue 1, 1971
By: Doris Gruenewald, Psychosomatic and Psychiatric Institute for Research and Training Michael Reese Hospital, Chicago

Study 2: Hypnotherapy for Irritable Bowel Syndrome Induced Agoraphobia
Cognitive-Behavioral Hypnotherapy in the Treatment of Irritable-Bowel-Syndrome-Induced Agoraphobia
http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/00207140601177889?journalCode=nhyp20

Results: This research paper describes the etiology and treatment of irritable-bowel-syndrome (IBS)-induced agoraphobia. Cognitive, behavioral, and hypnotherapeutic techniques are integrated to provide an effective cognitive-behavioral hypnotherapy (CBH) treatment for IBS-induced agoraphobia. This CBH approach for treating IBS-induced agoraphobia is described and clinical data are reported.

Notes: There are a number of clinical reports and a body of research on the effectiveness of hypnotherapy in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Likewise, there exists research demonstrating the efficacy of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) in the treatment of IBS. However, until this research paper, little had been written about the integration of CBT and hypnotherapy in the treatment of IBS, and there had been a lack of clinical information about IBS-induced agoraphobia.

International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, Vol. 55, Issue 2, 2007
By: William L. Golden, Private Practice, New York, New York, USA

Study 3: Review of Research on Hypnosis for Agoraphobia and Social Phobia
The Place of Hypnosis in Psychiatry Part 4: Its Application to the Treatment of Agoraphobia and Social Phobia
http://www.londonhypnotherapyuk.com/agoraphobia-social-phobia.asp

Results: This review of world-wide research and literature concludes that hypnosis is a powerful adjunct to therapy for agoraphobia and social phobia. The case studies presented here demonstrate that hypnosis has been highly effective in helping patients (1) to explore feared situations in a safe environment; (2) to reduce anxiety using desensitization; (3) to gain more control using anchoring, fantasy techniques and autogenic training; (4) to enhance coping strategies using ego strengthening and breathing techniques; and (5) to reduce affect using television screen imagery. Age regression (6) was also employed effectively to help a patient to address, and come to terms with, inner conflicts and traumatic events in early childhood. Finally, carefully-designed audio tapes were employed to encourage two patients to practice self hypnosis at home, and this had the effect of enhancing treatment outcome.

Notes: This paper is based on a world-wide search of the literature, and focuses on the use of hypnosis in the treatment of social phobia and agoraphobia. Hypnosis is employed as an adjunct to therapy: it is used to help patients to reduce cognitive and physical symptoms of anxiety, and provides them with more control in every day situations. The author reviews a range of treatment procedures that have been shown to be highly effective in the treatment of both social phobia and agoraphobia. An extensive search of the literature has uncovered seven studies which have used hypnosis in the treatment of agoraphobia: the first two studies (Gruenewald, 1971; Jackson & Elton, 1985) use a hypnoanalytic approach with age regression, the third and fourth studies (Schmidt, 1985; Hobbs, 1982) both use audio tapes, the fifth study (Mellinger, 1992) employs a hypnotically-augmented multidimensional approach, while the sixth study (Roddick, 1992) uses a fantasy technique to encourage cognitive re-structuring. Finally, the seventh paper (Milne, 1988), is useful in that the therapist employs a number of approaches in treatment including group therapy, ego strengthening and the gradual introduction of hypnosis from a process similar to meditation.

The text cited here is a pre-publication version of a paper published in the Australian Journal of Clinical & Experimental Hypnosis.
By: David Kraft, Harley Street, London, UK (PhD) (trained in psychotherapy at the National College of Hypnosis and Psychotherapy, diploma in clinical psychology (Dip.Cl.Psy). In addition, he trained at the BST Foundation in London where he gained both the diploma in Clinical Hypnosis (DCHyp) and the Advanced Certificate in Clinical and Strategic Hypnosis (A.Cert.CSHyp). David is a member of the Hypnosis & Psychosomatic Medicine Section of the Royal Society of Medicine; he is also a member of the British Society of Clinical and Academic Hypnosis (BSCAH))

Study 4: Use of Hypnosis to Counteract Resistance by a Client with Agoraphobia
Counteracting Resistance In Agoraphobia Using Hypnosis
http://www.londonhypnotherapyuk.com/agoraphobia-using-hypnosis.asp

Results: This research paper focuses on the treatment of agoraphobia and, specifically, on how hypnosis is employed in order to counteract resistance, thus reducing negative transference and providing the patient with the coping skills to become independent in the outside world. The author describes one case study in 1992 in which hypnotherapy was gradually introduced and used in stages; after 8 sessions, the client was able to drive herself to sessions and continued to make further progress.

Notes: The author describes how clients are often resistant to treatment for agoraphobia. Resistance takes on many forms. One case study is discussed in detail in which successful treatment consisted of the stages as shown below (Roddick, 1992). Note that the client in this case study had a particular aversion to being driven in a car and that these principles can be adapted to suit the needs of the patient. Stages: 1. Relaxing in the presence of the therapist; case history (approx. 4 sessions); 2. (a) Hypnosis is introduced using progressive muscle relaxation induction; (b) Experiencing special place imagery like a desert island beach; (c) Addressing the unconscious mind focusing on (i) the importance of practicing relaxation, (ii) being able to travel in a car, (iii) being able to eat and drink ‘as well as ever’; 3. (a) Direct suggestions of bringing the three parts together; (b) Ideomotor signalling used to ascertain whether the strategy has worked and was acceptable; (c) Re-integration of unconscious mind and conscious mind on the desert island beach; 4 (a) ‘Throwing out’ of negative thoughts; (b) Direct suggestions that the skills that the patient has learned in the special place can be utilized at any time. After 8 sessions of using this technique, the patient was able to drive herself to sessions and continued to make further progress thereafter.
This is a pre-publication version of the original research paper.
By: David Kraft, Harley Street, London, UK (PhD) (trained in psychotherapy at the National College of Hypnosis and Psychotherapy, diploma in clinical psychology (Dip.Cl.Psy). In addition, trained at the BST Foundation in London where he gained both the diploma in Clinical Hypnosis (DCHyp) and the Advanced Certificate in Clinical and Strategic Hypnosis (A.Cert.CSHyp). Also a member of the Hypnosis & Psychosomatic Medicine Section of the Royal Society of Medicine; he is also a member of the British Society of Clinical and Academic Hypnosis (BSCAH))

Study 5: Hypnotherapy for Panic Attacks
Rational self-directed hypnotherapy: a treatment for panic attacks
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2296917

Results: Results showed an increased sense of control, improved self-concept, elimination of pathological symptoms, and cessation of panic attacks.

Notes: A single-subject research design was employed to assess the efficacy of rational self-directed hypnotherapy in the treatment of panic attacks. Presenting symptoms were acute fear, dizziness, constricted throat, upset stomach, loss of appetite, loss of weight, insomnia, fear of doctors, and fear of returning to work. Treatment lasted 13 weeks plus a 2-week baseline and posttherapy period and a 6-month follow-up. Objective measurements (MMPI, TSCS, POMS) and self-report assessments (physiological symptoms and a subjective stress inventory) were implemented. Using hypnosis and guided imagery, the subject reviewed critical incidents identifying self-defeating components within a cognitive paradigm, revising and rehearsing these incidents.

Am J Clin Hypn. 1990 Jan;32(3):160-7
By: Der DF, Lewington P, Dept. of Counseling Psychology, University of British Columbia, USA

Study 6: Direct and Awake-Alert Hypnosis for Panic Disorders
Awake-Alert Hypnosis in the Treatment of Panic Disorder: A Case Study
http://www.asch.net/portals/0/journallibrary/articles/ajch-47/iglesias2.pdf

Results: A case study about an individual with a lifestyle-limiting panic disorder is discussed. At the start of therapy, the client was having panic attacks about three times a week – especially during outings for lunch engagements and dinner parties. Direct suggestions as well as a variant of awake-alert hypnosis were used. (Presumably, awake-alert hypnosis was encouraged to make it easier for the client to self-hypnotize with eyes open in the event she felt a panic attack starting.) After four weeks of three-times-a-week hypnosis, the intensity level of the panic attacks markedly decreased. Then, the client became able to thwart the development of episodes by applying the hypnotic procedure in the early phases of the panic process.

Notes: An eye-fixation induction was used and direct suggestions under hypnosis were first provided that the client would become immediately cognizant of any panic episodes at the earliest onset; it was emphasized in hypnosis that to the degree that she employed hypnosis at the earliest level of a panic episode, she would be successful in aborting the episode. After inducing hypnosis and eye-closure, the client was gradually conditioned to open her eyes while remaining in the hypnotic state. The client was conditioned to engender a disconnected and “woodsy” feeling all over her body. Suggestions were given that the client would feel as if an anesthetic agent had been injected yet it could be active and move about as necessary. The client was instructed that she would be able to induce awake-alert hypnosis over her entire body. The client was asked to imagine she was staring at fine glassware – and that at the slightest hint of discomfort she would immerse herself in the splendor of the glassware; the richness of the glass would offer the perfect sanctuary to feel protected—like an impenetrable fortress. The greater the discomfort, the deeper within the glass the client was told she would retreat. As a result, suggestions were given that her respirations would slow down, her stomach would unwind, etc. until she felt it was acceptable to disengage from the glass.

Am. Jrnl of Clinical Hypnosis, April 2005
By: Alex Iglesias (Palm Beach Gardens, Florida) and Adam Iglesias (Florida Atlantic University)

Hypnosis and Smoking Cessation


Stop Smoking

As Stoptober has now started, the NHS Stop Smoking campaign, I am posting my research findings regarding hypnosis as a tool for Smoking Cessation. he research papers covered a variety of session types and formats and the overall consensus is that hypnosis is a highly effective treatment method for smoking cessation.

I have seen may clients for smoking cessation and it has varied from one to six sessions and although there is an element of physical addiction, the physical aspect lasts for a maximum of 72 hours, after this any cravings are purely psychological and linked to a variety of associations and beliefs about the connection to smoking in those associated environments and situations.

core beliefs

I am registered with the Complimentary and Natural Healthcare Council (CNHC) and you can find my profile by clicking on the logo below.

92. CNHC Quality_Mark_web version

Study 1: Hypnosis for Smoking Most Effective Technique; Three Times More Effective than Nicotine Gum and Five Times More Effective than Willpower Alone
Smoking cessation A Meta-Analytic Comparison of the Effectiveness of Smoking Cessation Methods.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1387394
http://psycnet.apa.org/journals/apl/77/4/554/

Results: They found that among of all of the techniques used, hypnosis was the most effective. They found that a single session of hypnosis was three times more effective than the nicotine gum and five times more effective then willpower alone (willpower was 6%; nicotine gum was 10% and a single hypnosis session was 30%).

Notes: The Institute of Actuaries (in the US) commissioned the largest study ever done on smoking cessation. It statistically analysed the results of 633 smoking cessation studies involving 71,806 participants.

Journal of Applied Psychology. Vol 77(4), Aug 1992, 554-561
By: C. Viswesvaran, F. L. Schmidt, Department of Management and Organisations, University of Iowa, Iowa City 52242

Study 2: Hypnosis and NLP to Quit Smoking
Freedom From Smoking: Integrating Hypnotic Methods and Rapid Smoking to Facilitate Smoking Cessation.
http://bscw.rediris.es/pub/bscw.cgi/d4584046/Barber-Freedom_from_smoking.pdf

Results: The researchers combined hypnosis with with NLP smoking cessation techniques and found that 39 subjects (90%) reported that they remained smoke-free 6 months after the treatment.. The 4 subjects that resumed smoking reported doing so in response to intolerable anxiety.

Notes: This study recruited 43 subjects who wished to quit smoking. The researchers combined hypnosis with with NLP smoking cessation techniques and found that 39 subjects (90%) reported that they remained smoke-free 6 months after the treatment. The following reasons are given for using hypnosis:

  • clarify and heighten patient’s awareness of his/her motivation to stop smoking
  • ego-strengthening to inspire new behaviour
  • ease the physical and mental effects of smoking withdrawal
  • encourage a general increase in daily activity
  • helping if smoking constitutes self-medication as a distraction from some unpleasant emotions.

Hypnotic suggestions were given that encourage the patient’s freedom to determine his/her behaviour rather than be compelled by smoking addiction. Also, just some of the hypnotic suggestions that were given:

  1. If you have any ambivalence at this time about stopping smoking, we will discuss it now and take the opportunity to meet any objections you might have to stopping smoking
  2. You are someone who used to smoke; there is no reason on earth that is sufficient to justify you ever picking up a cigarette again
  3. If your child or someone else you love has for some reason a really strong craving to eat poison, you wouldn’t let your child eat that poison, would you?
  4. You may be delighted by the creativity you may show in developing really interesting rationalisations to smoke, but you won’t take them seriously
  5. You may have a very brief, very peculiar, but interesting experience over the next several hours or days or even weeks – an image of looking back over your shoulder at the walls of a kind of prison that held you for some reason – a reason perhaps now forgotten – you are no longer a prisoner there. You may be able to hear or even feel the discomfort of other prisoners who are still there and you will feel compassion for them, but you also enjoy the clear air of your freedom
  6. You may be surprised at pride you feel having chosen to take care of yourself – to stand by what you know is right – and pride at having chosen to let this experience be calmer and more comfortable than you may have once expected
  7. You can enjoy the process of learning to live freely
  8. You no longer have to do something because someone else once convinced you that you must
  9. You can discover that any time you want to feel more comfortable, all you have to do is sit back in a chair or take a deep breath
  10. You can take comfort in knowing that if any feelings were bothering you, they no longer need to
  11. If you have cravings, that is natural – to miss the old habit – the difference now is that the craving will not be responded to in the old way – new responses will be discovered that will lead to more satisfying results
  12. Increased activity levels will be noticed – parking your car a little further away than usual and walking the extra distance – a renewed dedication to your favourite sport, etc
  13. This is not a short- term change – but for the rest of your life
  14. Increased fluid intake in response to any cravings – a pleasant full glass of water – you might be surprised how satisfying that can be

Int J Clin Exp Hypn. 2001 Jul;49(3):257-66
By: J. Baber, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, Washington

Study 3: Smoking Cessation and Hypnosis: Three Sessions
Clinical Hypnosis for Smoking Cessation: Preliminary Results of a Three-Session Intervention.
http://bscw.rediris.es/pub/bscw.cgi/d4431440/Elkins-Clinical_hypnosis_smoking_cessation.pdf
http://www.belleruthnaparstek.com/smoking-cessation/clinical-hypnosis-for-smoking-cessation-preliminary-results-of-a-three-session-intervention.html

Results: At the end of the program 17 subjects (81%) reported that they had stopped smoking. A 12-month follow-up revealed that 10 of them (48%) remained smoke-free.

Notes: Twenty-one smokers who were referred to this study by their physicians for medical reasons, received three smoking cessation hypnosis sessions. All patients reported having failed in previous unassisted attempts to stop smoking. The clinical-treatment protocol included three sessions. The first session was the initial consultation and did not include a hypnotic induction. Sessions 2 and 3 involved individually adapted hypnotic suggestions and an individual therapeutic relationship with each patient. Each patient was also provided with a cassette tape recording of a hypnotic induction with direct suggestions for relaxation and a feeling of comfort. The patients were seen biweekly for treatment.

Hypnotic Suggestions: Absorption in relaxing imagery, a commitment to stop smoking, decreased craving for nicotine, posthypnotic suggestions, practice of self-hypnosis, and to visualise the positive benefits of smoking cessation. The induction was standardised, but the specific imagery for relaxation and the positive benefits for smoking cessation were individualised based upon the patient’s preference regarding such imagery. The suggestions may be summarised as follows:

1. Eye-focus induction. “Begin by focusing your attention on a spot on the wall. As you concentrate, begin to feel more relaxed. Concentrate intensely so that other things begin to fade into the background. As this occurs, noticing a relaxed and heavy feeling and allowing your eye-lids to close.”

2. Relaxation. “Noticing a ‘wave of relaxation” that begins at the top of your head and spreads across your forehead, face, neck, and shoulders. Every muscle and every fibre of your body is becoming more and more completely relaxed. More and more noticing a feeling of ‘letting go’ and becoming so deeply relaxed.”

3. Comfort. “. . . and as you become and remain more relaxed, finding a feeling of comfort. Feeling safe and secure. A peaceful feeling, calm and secure. Feeling so calm that nothing bothers or interferes with this feeling of comfort.”

4. Mental imagery for relaxation. “As you can hear my voice with a part of your mind, with another part going to a place where you feel safe and secure. A place where you become so deeply relaxed that you are able to respond to each suggestion just as you would like to, feeling everything you need to feel and to experience.” (Here individualised imagery is suggested, for example, suggestions for walking down a mountain path or along the beach, depending on the patients preference.)

5. Commitment for smoking cessation. “. . . and today becoming a nonsmoker, becoming free from nicotine and free from cigarettes. . . . You will not smoke cigarettes or use tobacco again. With each day that passes, your commitment to remain free from cigarettes will become stronger and each time you enter this relaxed state you will remember the reasons you want to stop smoking.” (Here individualised imagery is suggested consistent with the patient’s individual reasons for wanting to stop smoking, i.e., health, family, financial, etc.)

6. Dissociation from cravings. “As you enter an even deeper level of hypnosis, you may notice a floating sensation, less aware of your body, just floating in space. Your body floating in a feeling of comfort and your mind, just so aware of being in that pleasant place [individualised imagery for a pleasant place]. As your body floats, you will not be bothered by craving nicotine. Your mind blocks from conscious awareness any cravings and you can feel more detached from your body as you become more relaxed.”

7. Posthypnotic suggestions. “. . . and as you become and as you remain free from nicotine and free from cigarettes, you will find a sense of satisfaction and accomplishment. You will find that, more and more, you are able to sleep very well, your sense of smell will improve, and your sense of taste will improve. You will not eat excessively and you will find an appropriate amount of food to be satisfying to you.”

8. Self-hypnosis. “Each time you practice self-hypnosis or listen to the tape recording that I will provide to you today, you will be able to enter a very deep state of relaxation, just as deep as you are today . . . and within this relaxed state, you will find a feeling of control. You will be able to become so deeply relaxed that you will become very comfortable, and you will be able to have a feeling of dissociation that keeps from conscious awareness any excessive craving for nicotine. Within this relaxed state, your commitment to remain free from cigarettes will become even stronger and you will find a kind of strength from your practice of self-hypnosis.”

9. Positive imagery for benefits of smoking cessation. “. . . now, seeing yourself in the future as a nonsmoker, free from nicotine and cigarettes. Notice all of the good things going on around you, how healthy you feel, and . . . [here, individualised imagery was introduced, depending on the patient’s perceived benefits from smoking cessation]. Seeing how well you are able to feel and you will not smoke, no matter if times become stressful or difficult. You will be able to remain calm and relaxed, both now and in the future.”

10. Alerting. “Returning to conscious alertness as a nonsmoker. Returning to conscious alertness in your own time and your own pace, in a way that just feels about right for you today. Feeling very good, normal, with good and normal sensations in every way as you return to full conscious alertness.”

Int J Clin Exp Hypn. 2004 , Jan;52(1):73-81
By: G. R. Elkins, M. H. Rajab, Texas A&M University’s Health Science Center

Study 4: Hypnosis to Quit Smoking for Medical Reasons
The Use of Hypnosis in Controlling Cigarette Smoking.
http://journals.lww.com/smajournalonline/Abstract/1968/09000/The_Use_of_Hypnosis_in_Controlling_Cigarette.23.aspx

Results: This early study (1968) found that the majority of people who want to quit smoking for medical reasons, were able to do so after having four hypnosis sessions.
Southern Medical Journal, 1968 Sep;61(9):999-1002
By: Crasilneck HB, (Ph.D.) , Hall JA. (Ph.D.)

Study 5: Hypnosis to Quit Smoking – One Session (Compared to Placebo and No Treatment)
Use of Single Session Hypnosis for Smoking Cessation.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3369332

Results: When they were followed-up at 4, 12, 24 and 48 weeks, the researchers found that significantly more members of the hypnosis group had quit smoking than the other two groups. They also found that among those still smoking, those who were in the hypnosis group were smoking significantly less than those in the other two groups.

Notes: This study involved 60 participants who were randomly assigned to one of three groups: one that received a placebo, one that received a single hypnosis session and one that received no treatment.

Addictive Behaviours, 1988, Vol. 13(2):205-208
By: J. M. Williams, D. Hall, Dept. of Human Resources, University of Scranton, PA

Study 6: Hypnosis to Quit Smoking – Hospitalised Patients (Compared to Nicotine Replacement Therapy and Going “Cold Turkey”)
Hypnotherapy For Smoking Cessation Sees Strong Results
http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2007/10/071022124741.htm

Results: Hospitalised patients who smoke may be more likely to quit smoking through the use of hypnotherapy than patients using other smoking cessation methods. This study shows that smoking patients who participated in one hypnotherapy session were more likely to be nonsmokers at 6 months compared with patients using nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) alone or patients who quit “cold turkey.”

Notes: This study compared the quit rates of 67 smoking patients hospitalised with a cardiopulmonary diagnosis. All patients were approached about smoking cessation and all included in the study were patients who expressed a desire to quit smoking. At discharge, patients were divided into four groups based on their preferred method of smoking cessation treatment: hypnotherapy (n=14), NRT (n=19), NRT and hypnotherapy (n=18), and a group of controls who preferred to quit “cold turkey” (n=16). All patients received self-help brochures. The control group received brief counselling, but other groups received intensive counselling, free supply of NRT and/or a free hypnotherapy session within 7 days of discharge, as well as follow up telephone calls at 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, and 26 weeks after discharge. Patients receiving hypnotherapy also were taught to do self-hypnosis and were given tapes to play at the end of the session.

At 26 weeks after discharge, 50 percent of patients treated with hypnotherapy alone were nonsmokers, compared with 50 percent in the NRT/hypnotherapy group, 25 percent in the control group, and 15.78 percent in the NRT group. Patients admitted with a cardiac diagnosis were more likely to quit smoking at 26 weeks (45.5 percent) than patients admitted with a pulmonary diagnosis (15.63 percent).

The researchers note that hospitalisation is an important opportunity to intervene among patients who smoke.

This study as presented at Chest 2007, the 73rd annual international scientific assembly of the American College of Chest Physicians.
http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2007/10/071022124741.htm Oct. 24, 2007
By: Faysal Hasan, MD, FCCP, North Shore Medical Centre, Salem, MADr. Hasan and colleagues from North Shore Medical Centre and Massachusetts General Hospital

Study 7: Hypnosis and Smoking Cessation in the Workplace – Hypnotherapy Accompanying a Smoke-Free Work Policy
Reducing smoking at the workplace: implementing a smoking ban and hypnotherapy.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7670901?dopt=Abstract

Results: Fifteen percent of survey respondents quit and remained continuously abstinent. A survey to assess attitudes toward the policy was conducted 1 year after policy implementation (n = 1256; response rate = 64%). Satisfaction was especially high among those reporting high compliance with the policy. These results suggest that hypnotherapy may be an attractive alternative smoking cessation method, particularly when used in conjunction with a smoke-free worksite policy that offers added incentive for smokers to think about quitting.

Notes: This study examines the impact of a smoke-free policy and the effectiveness of an accompanying hypnotherapy smoking cessation program. Participants in the 90-minute smoking cessation seminar were surveyed 12 months after the program was implemented (n = 2642; response rate = 76%). Seventy-one percent of the smokers participated in the hypnotherapy program.

J Occup Environ Med. 1995 Apr;37(4):453-60
By: G. Sorensen, B. Beder, C. R. Prible, J. Pinney, Dana Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, Massachusetts

Study 8: Smoking and Suggestions Given During Anaesthesia for Surgery
Reducing smoking. The effect of suggestion during general anaesthesia on postoperative smoking habits.
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1365-2044.1994.tb03368.x/abstract

Results: In a double-blind randomised trial, 122 female smokers undergoing elective surgery were allocated to receive one of two prerecorded messages while fully anaesthetised. The active message was designed to encourage them to give up smoking whilst the control message was the same voice counting numbers. No patient could recall hearing the tape. Patients were asked about their postoperative smoking behaviour one month later. Significantly more of those who had received the active tape had stopped or reduced their smoking (p < 0.01). This would suggest a level of preconscious processing of information.

Anaesthesia. 1994 Feb;49(2):126-8
Comment in: Anaesthesia. 1994 Oct;49(10):917-8
By: J. A. Hughes, L. D. Sanders, J. A. Dunne, J. Tarpey, M. D. Vickers, Department of Anaesthesia, Morriston Hospital, Swansea, West Glamorgan

Study 9: Smoking and Hypnosis: Single Session with Self-Hypnosis
Predictors of smoking abstinence following a single session restructuring intervention with self hypnosis.
http://bscw.rediris.es/pub/bscw.cgi/d4465008/Spiegel-Predictors_smoking_abstinence_self_hypnosis.pdf

Results: Fifty-two percent of the study group achieved complete smoking abstinence 1 week after the intervention; 23% maintained their abstinence for 2 years. Hypnotisability and having been previously able to quit smoking for at least a month significantly predicted the initiation of abstinence. Hypnotisability and living with a significant other person predicted 2- year maintenance of treatment response.

Notes: A consecutive series of 226 smokers referred for the smoking cessation program were treated with a single-session habit restructuring intervention involving self-hypnosis. They were then followed up for 2 years. Total abstinence from smoking after the intervention was the criterion for successful outcome.

Am J Psychiatry. 1993 Jul;150(7):1090-7
By: D. Spiegel, E. J. Frischholz, J. L. Fleiss, H. Spiegel, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioural Sciences, Stanford University School of Medicine, CA

Study 10: Smoking and Hypnosis: Factors for Success – Patient’s Own Reason to Quit, Maintaining Contact with Patient, Self-Hypnosis
Smoking and hypnosis: A systematic clinical approach
http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/00207147008415930#preview

Results: 2 methods of helping cigarette smokers stop smoking were compared in treating a total of 181 patients. After 6 months, 60% of those treated with an active, personalised approach were not smoking. This approach emphasised: (a) the feedback, under hypnosis, of the patient’s own reasons for quitting, (b) maintaining contact with the patient by telephone, (c) use of meditation during hypnosis to obtain individualised motives, and (d) Sell-hypnosis. Only 25% of smokers were successfully treated by an earlier hypnotic procedure that did not systematically employ these features.

International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, Volume 18, Issue 4, 1970
By: William Nulanda, Morton Prince Clinic for Hypnotherapy and Peter B. Field, Veterans Administration Hospital, Brooklyn & Morton Prince Clinic for Hypnotherapy

Study 11: Smoking and Hypnosis: Which Suggestions Work
Hypnotic Treatment of Smoking.
http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/detailmini.jsp?_nfpb=true&_&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED240439&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=no&accno=ED240439

Results: Results indicated that positive suggestions were more efficacious than negative. Treatment was most successful for subjects who did not see themselves as habitual smokers.

Notes: Prior studies of hypnotic treatment of smoking have reported abstinence rates of between 17 and 88 percent at six months, but few have investigated procedures or forms of suggestions. To compare the effectiveness of positive and negative hypnotic suggestions and self-hypnosis for cessation of smoking, 32 subjects were assigned to one of four treatment groups: (1) negative suggestions alone; (2) negative suggestions plus self-hypnosis; (3) positive suggestions alone; and (4) positive suggestions plus self-hypnosis. Subjects also completed a series of smoking history questionnaires; the Self-Efficacy for Smoking Avoidance Questionnaire, to assess expectations for smoking cessation; and the Horn-Waingrow Scale, used to delineate types of smokers. Treatment involved three 1-hour sessions, with those not abstinent at post-treatment or follow-up receiving three additional sessions. Outcome was assessed at post-treatment and 1, 2, 3, and 6 months following the final treatment session. Results indicated that positive suggestions were more efficacious than negative. Treatment was most successful for subjects who did not see themselves as habitual smokers. While ratings of self-efficacy at pre-test and following treatment were not predictive of later self-efficacy, subjects’ ratings at 1 month post-treatment were predictive of later self-efficacy ratings.

Summary of research presented at the Annual Convention of the American Psychological Association (91st, Anaheim, CA, August 26-30, 1983)
By: Samuel A. Bastien, IV; Marc Kessler

Additional References:

NHS Stoptober Campaign

https://cnhcregister.org.uk/newsearch/index.cfm