Hypnosis and Blood Pressure


Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) kills over 160,000 individuals every year in the UK and is still the greatest cause of mortality in women. Furthermore, over 40,000 premature deaths, those in individuals under 75 years of age, are caused by CVD, with more than two thirds of these occurring in men.

Source: British Heart Foundation – Cardiovascular Disease Statistics 2014

CVDs are the number 1 cause of death globally: more people die annually from CVDs than from any other cause with an estimated 17.5 million people died from CVDs in 2012, representing 31% of all global deaths. Of these deaths, an estimated 7.4 million were due to coronary heart disease and 6.7 million were due to stroke .

Source: World Health Organisation – Cardiovascular Disease

Blausen_0486_HighBloodPressure_01

Study 1: Hypnosis Reduces Blood Pressure Short-Term and Long-Term
Effectiveness of Hypnosis in Reducing Mild Essential Hypertension: A One-Year Follow-Up
http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/00207140600995893

Results: The present study investigates the effectiveness of hypnosis in reducing mild essential hypertension. Results show that hypnosis is effective in reducing blood pressure in the short term but also in the middle and long terms.

Notes: Thirty participants who were suffering from mild essential hypertension were randomly assigned to either a control group (which did not receive any treatment) or a hypnosis group (where each person received 8 individually tailored hypnosis sessions).

International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, Vol. 55, Issue 1, 2007
By: M. C. Gay, Univ. of Paris, France

average-blood-pressure-for-age

Study 2: Hypnosis Helps Lower Blood Pressure and Reduces Need for Blood Pressure Medicine Following Hospitalization
Pilot study of the effect of self-hypnosis on the medical management of essential hypertension.
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/(SICI)1099-1700(199910)15:4%3C243::AID-SMI820%3E3.0.CO;2-O/abstract

Results: On follow-up, the hypnosis group showed greater downward change in diastolic blood pressure than the monitored group, with the attention-only group in between. Additionally, no subjects in the hypnosis group required upward titration of medications. The results suggest the value of adding self-hypnosis to the standard medical treatment for hypertension.

Notes: Medical patients diagnosed as hypertensive whose blood pressures were normalized while they were hospitalized were often found to require upward titration of medication upon follow-up as outpatients. Self-hypnosis was taught to one group of hospitalized patients; a second group received equal attention and time to relax without the specified procedure; and a third group was monitored with no intervention.

Stress Medicine, Volume 15, Issue 4, Pages 243-247, October 1999
By: Richard Raskin Ph.D., Charles Raps Ph.D., Frederic Luskin Ph.D., Pace University, New York, USA, Veteran’s Hospital, Northport, USA, Stanford Center for Research in Disease Prevention, Stanford, USA, Private Practice, Roslyn, New York, USA

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Study 3: Hypnosis and Biofeedback for Hypertension
The use of hypnosis and biofeedback procedures for essential hypertension.
http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/00207147708415989?journalCode=nhyp20#preview

Results: Hypnosis only and biofeedback only procedures were both capable of providing significant lowering of diastolic pressure. However, in intergroup comparisons, the hypnosis only procedure showed the most impressive effect. Unexpectedly, the procedure of combining hypnosis and biofeedback into one technique was as ineffective as the measurement only procedure.

Notes: In an attempt to evaluate a procedure combining 2 techniques, hypnosis and biofeedback, which might effect significant changes in diastolic blood pressure in essential hypertensives, subjects were placed in 1 of 4 groups: hypnosis only, biofeedback only, hypnosis and biofeedback combined, or measurement only. The first phase-training sessions and brief follow-ups (1 week and 1 month) of the long-term study with 6 monthly followup periods, was evaluated.

International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, Vol. 25, Issue 4, 1977
By: Howard Friedman and Harvey A. Taub, Syracuse Veterans Administration Hospital and State University of New York Upstate Medical Center, Syracuse, New York, USA

Hypnosis and Bedwetting


Key Causes

Study 1: Hypnosis and Self-Hypnosis for Bedwetting (Enuresis) – Children Aged 5 to 16
Hypnosis and self-hypnosis in the management of nocturnal enuresis: a comparative study with imipramine therapy.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8259762

Results: Of the patients treated with imipramine (a prescription antidepressant medication), 76% had a positive response (all dry beds); for patients treated with hypnotic strategies, 72% responded positively. At the 9-month follow-up, 68% of patients in the hypnosis group maintained a positive response, whereas only 24% of the imipramine group did.

Notes: Enuretic (bedwetting) children, ranging in age from 5 to 16 years, underwent 3 months of therapy with imipramine (N = 25) or hypnosis (N = 25). After termination of the active treatment, the hypnosis group continued practicing self-hypnosis daily during the follow-up period of another 6 months.

Am J Clin Hypn. 1993 Oct;36(2):113-9
By: S. Banerjee, A. Srivastav, B. M. Palan, Pramukhswami Medical College, India

Study 2: Hypnosis and Bedwetting – Boys Aged 8 to 13
Hypnotherapy as a Treatment for Enuresis.
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1469-7610.1985.tb01635.x/abstract

Results: Results indicated that hypnotherapy was significantly effective over 6 months in decreasing nocturnal enuresis, compared with both pretreatment baseline enuresis frequency and no-treatment controls.

Notes: The main objective of this study was to provide an adequately controlled experimental and clinical study to assess the efficacy of hypnotherapy in the treatment of nocturnal enuresis. Subjects were 48 nocturnal enuretic boys, aged 8-13 yr. Treatment consisted of six standardized sessions, one hourly session per subject per week.

Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, Volume 26, Issue 1, pages 161-170, January 1985
By: S. D. Edwards, Department of Psychology, University of Zululand, South Africa
H. I. J. Vander Spuvy, Department of Psychiatry, McMaster University, Ontario, Canada

Study 3: Hypnotherapy and Refractory Nocturnal Enuresis – Boys Aged 8 to 16
Hypnotherapy in the treatment of refractory nocturnal enuresis.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14983195

Results: At follow-up after three months and one year, nine out of 12 patients had respectively 6-7/7, and 7/7 dry nights per week. Three patients had nocturnal enuresis at follow-up; two of them were referred to a pediatric surgeon for their overactive urine bladder and one was referred to his local psychiatric clinic because of ongoing family conflicts.

Notes: Twelve boys, median age 12 years (range 8-16), eight with primary nocturnal enuresis and four with primary nocturnal and diurnal enuresis, reported at referral a median of 0 (range 0-3) dry nights per week They underwent hypnotherapy with a median of six sessions (range 2-8), followed by median one month with self-hypnosis exercises. Hypnotherapy had lasting effects for boys with chronic and complex forms of nocturnal enuresis.

Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 2004 Feb 19;124(4):488-91. (Article in Norwegian)
By: T. H. Diseth, I. H. Vandvik, Barne-og ungdomspsykiatrisk seksjon, Barneavdelingen, Rikshospitalet, Oslo