Hypnosis and Claustrophobia


Claustrophobia is usually defined as the irrational fear of confined spaces. It can be rational to fear being trapped when circumstances carry genuine threat. However, in claustrophobia, people experience fear even when there is no obvious or realistic danger in a particular situation.

People who experience claustrophobia generally go out of their way to avoid a long list of confined spaces, including lifts, tunnels, tube trains, revolving doors, public toilets, MRI scanners, and even don’t like to wear crash helmets. Unfortunately, avoidance may reinforce the fear.

Claustrophobia may arise from a one-off trauma at any age, developed when the person was a child (for example growing up with one or more claustrophobic parents) or emerge as someone gets older. Around 10% of the population may experience claustrophobia during their lifetime.

Simple Self Diagnosis

If you can answer YES to most of the questions it is likely that you are affected by claustrophobia.

During the past 6 months, did any of the following make you feel anxious:

  • Being in a confined space such as being in a tunnel, on the underground etc.?
  • Being in crowded places?
  • Did you avoid being in any of the above situations?

Physical Symptoms

Panic attacks are common among people with claustrophobia. They can be very frightening and distressing and symptoms often occur without warning.
As well as overwhelming feelings of anxiety, a panic attack can also cause:

  • sweating
  • trembling
  • hot flushes or chills
  • shortness of breath or difficulty breathing
  • a choking sensation
  • rapid heartbeat
  • chest pain or a feeling of tightness in the chest
  • a sensation of butterflies in the stomach
  • nausea
  • headaches and dizziness
  • feeling faint
  • numbness or pins and needles
  • dry mouth
  • a need to go to the toilet
  • ringing in your ears
  • feeling confused or disorientated

Psychological Symptoms
People with severe claustrophobia may also experience psychological symptoms such as:

  • fear of losing control
  • fear of fainting
  • feelings of dread
  • fear of dying

For many people, the aspect of embarrassment over their phobia is as debilitating as the the phobic condition itself. Some sufferers recognise that their fears are overblown and irrational, but cannot seem to stay in control. The reason for this is because phobias are rooted deep within the unconscious, which no amount of conscious effort can be fully effective in controlling. This makes treating phobias particularly challenging.

Claustrophobia is usually treated with anti-anxiety drugs or counseling. Hypnotherapy is an ideal, safe and non-invasive form of therapy with no harmful side effects. It works by pinpointing the root causes of fear in the unconscious to rapidly cure a phobia. In particular, a program that utilises Ericksonian hypnotherapy techniques and Neuro-Linguistic Programming (NLP) can be used to cure a phobia. This uses numerous hypnotic techniques to help people beat their fears.

The initial step in curing a phobia is helping the sufferer feel relaxed and anxiety-free. Hypnotherapy has long been used as a form of stress-reducing therapy, to help people clear their minds and focus deeply.

Conventional hypnosis techniques have used direct, post-hypnotic suggestions to help cure phobias. The disadvantage of the direct approach is that the mind tends to reject being merely “told” how to behave. Many people put up mental blocks and ignore suggestions. In today’s society, both children and adults are especially likely to ignore direct suggestions since we are mostly independent people who question authority.

Deep relaxation is the essence of the hypnotic state. Once in the relaxed state, instead of using direct post-hypnotic suggestions, a better approach known as systematic desensitisation can help extinguish a phobia through visual imagery.

Ericksonian hypnotherapy uses a more innovative approach than conventional techniques. It utilises indirect suggestions concealed in captivating stories and metaphors to interest the unconscious and convince it to adopt a desirable, phobia-free line of thinking. Due to the fact that indirect suggestions don’t need to be adapted to a single phobia like direct suggestions do, a single good Ericksonian hypnotherapy program will work to beat any phobia or even multiple phobias.

NLP, Neuro-Linguistic Programming, is an innovative form of therapy that many well trained hypnotherapists have begun to use. The best NLP technique for overcoming a phobia is called the Visual – Kinesthetic Disassociation, also referred to as the V/K. The V/K is recognised as the single session phobia cure, and for good reason. Phobic or panic reactions (attacks) occur because traumatic experiences are attached to and aggravated by mental images. With the V/K, the traumatic experiences are disconnected from the mental images – often in one simple session, and the fear is essentially extinguished.

Those fighting with claustrophobia can find relief with hypnotherapy. The combination of Ericksonian hypnosis therapy with NLP techniques will help all people beat their phobias. Hypnosis therapy has helped countless users feel safe and secure in situations where earlier, they would’ve suffered a breakdown. Hypnosis techniques have provided phenomenal benefits for people afflicted with phobias and continue to improve lives each and every day.

Study 1: Hypnosis and Claustrophobia in Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRIs)

Hypnosis for management of claustrophobia in magnetic resonance imaging (Study developed at Hospital e Maternidade São Camilo Pompeia, São Paulo, SP, Brazil)
http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0100-39842010000100007&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en

Results: Out of the sample, 18 (90%) patients were susceptible to the technique. Of the 16 hypnotizable subjects who were submitted to magnetic resonance imaging, 15 (93.8%) could complete the examination under hypnotic trance, with no sign of claustrophobia and without need of sedative drugs.

Conclusion: Hypnosis is an alternative to anesthetic sedation for claustrophobic patients who must undergo magnetic resonance imaging.

Notes: The objective was to evaluate the efficacy of hypnosis for management of claustrophobia in patients submitted to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Twenty claustrophobic patients referred for magnetic resonance imaging under sedation were submitted to hypnosis The patients susceptible to hypnosis were submitted to magnetic resonance imaging under hypnotic trance without using sedative drugs.

After hypnotic induction, the patients underwent ideosensory activities, with induction of vivid, pleasant visual and kinesthetic sensations (walk through a relaxing, safe and welcoming landscape) associated with a sensation of peace, tranquility and safety. After the establishment of the hypnogenic signal, the patients were dehypnotized for assessment of the depth and efficacy of the induced hypnotic trance. Subsequently, hypnosis was induced again, this time by means of the hypnogenic signal. In this second procedure (double induction technique), the patients were introduced to the different phases of the MRI examination which are resignified and associated with the relaxing sensation achieved in the previous ideosensory activity. On the occasion of the procedure, the patient was hypnotized with utilization of the hypnogenic signal in a preparation room, and taken on a wheelchair to the MRI equipment, being dehypnotized once the procedure was completed.

Radiologia Brasileira, Vol. 43, No. 1, São Paulo Jan./Feb. 2010
By: Luiz Guilherme Carneiro Velloso (Maternidade São Camilo Pompeia, São Paulo, SP, Brazil); Maria de Lourdes DupratII (Psychologist, Group of Medical Hypnosis and Hypnotherapy of Hospital e Maternidade São Camilo Pompeia, São Paulo, SP, Brazil); Ricardo Martins (Biomedical Scientist, Unit of Imaging Diagnosis – Hospital e Maternidade São Camilo Pompeia, São Paulo, SP, Brazil); Luiz Scoppetta (MD, Radiologist, Unit of Imaging Diagnosis – Hospital e Maternidade São Camilo Pompeia, São Paulo, SP, Brazil)

Study 2: More Hypnosis for MRI Procedures
Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Improved Patient Tolerance Utilizing Medical Hypnosis
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2270840

Results: Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is a medical procedure where patients are required to lie on their backs in a tight cylinder (with only a few inches of space between their face and the top of the chamber) for up to an hour. Between one and ten percent of patients experience feelings of panic and other claustrophobic reactions. Many are unable to complete the procedure. This study reports on how hypnosis was used to help ten claustrophobic patients successfully undergo this procedure.

Am J Clin Hypn. 1990 Oct;33(2):80-4
By: P. J. Friday, W. S. Kubal , Shadyside Hospital, Pittsburgh, PA, USA

Study 3: More Hypnosis for MRI Procedures
Hypnosis Using a Communication Device to Increase Magnetic Resonance Imaging Tolerance with a Claustrophobic Patient.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9922650

The paper reports on the case of a woman who was unable to have an MRI because she was claustrophobic and panicked in such confined environments. She was then hypnotized twice and given post-hypnotic suggestions to increase her sense of comfort and relaxation and gain control over her body’s responses. She was then hypnotized through headphones when she entered the MRI unit where she was able to complete the procedure. This patient was successfully able to cope with this procedure and reported great satisfaction with treatment.

Mil Med. 1999 Jan;164(1):71-2
By: E. P. Simon, Clinical Psychology Department, Tripler Army Medical Center, Honolulu, HI 96859, USA

Hypnosis and Cancer


Cancer-patients-use-hypnosis-in-healing

There is a huge body of research into the use of hypnosis with cancer patientsAs with many types of complementary therapy, one of the main reasons people with cancer use hypnotherapy is to help them relax and cope better with symptoms and treatment. Hypnotherapy can help people to feel more comfortable and in control of their situation.

People with cancer most often use hypnotherapy for sickness or pain. There is some evidence that hypnotherapy helps with these symptoms. It can also help with depression, anxiety and stress.

Some doctors and dentists have training in hypnotherapy. They may use this alongside conventional treatments such as chemotherapy or radiotherapy.

Research into Hypnotherapy in People With Cancer
Some reports show that hypnosis can help people to reduce their blood pressure, stress, anxiety, and pain. Hypnosis can create relaxing brain wave patterns. Some clinical trials have looked at how well hypnotherapy works for people with cancer.

Research has looked at the following areas:

Hypnosis and Cancer Pain
A report from the American National Institute for Health in 1996 stated that hypnosis can help to reduce some kinds of cancer pain. A large review in 2006 looked at using hypnotherapy to control distress and pain from medical procedures in children with cancer. The review found that hypnotherapy did seem to help to reduce the children’s pain and distress, but it recommended more research. You can look at this cancer pain review on the Research Council for Complementary medicine website.

In 2012, researchers in Spain again reviewed studies of children with cancer and found that hypnosis appeared to help reduce pain and distress from cancer or from medical procedures.

Hypnosis and Sickness
A large review in 2006 looked at research into hypnotherapy for feeling or being sick from chemotherapy. Most of the studies in this area have been in children. Overall, the studies did show that hypnotherapy might be able to help with chemotherapy sickness in children. There has only been 1 study looking at hypnotherapy for sickness after chemotherapy in adults, so we need more research into this. You can look at this cancer and sickness review on the Research Council for Complementary medicine website.

One study found that hypnosis can help to reduce anticipatory nausea and vomiting. Anticipatory nausea or vomiting happens when people have had nausea or vomiting due to cancer drugs and they then have nausea or vomiting just before their next dose.

Hypnosis and Hot Flushes
A clinical trial in America in 2008 found that women having breast cancer treatment who had hypnosis had fewer hot flushes and the flushes were less severe. The women also had less anxiety, depression, and interference with daily activities, and better sleep.

Hypnosis and Breast Cancer Surgery
A study in 2007 in America gave hypnotherapy to a group of women before breast surgery. The researchers found that hypnotherapy lowered the amount of pain, sickness, tiredness and upset that the women had after surgery. Another American study in 2006 found that hypnotherapy helped to lower anxiety and pain during a biopsy for suspected breast cancer.

Hypnotherapy for Symptom Control in Advanced Cancer
In 2005 researchers carried out a review of studies into hypnotherapy for treating symptoms in people with advanced cancer. There were 27 studies but all were small or of poor quality. So it is not possible to tell whether hypnotherapy can help people with advanced cancer. We need research to find this out and this research below goes a long way in helping medical science discover ways to treat and alleviate the symptoms of cancer.

 

Study 1: Cancer and Hypnosis – 2013 Overview

Hypnosis for cancer care: Over 200 years young
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.3322/caac.21165/full

Notes: Hypnosis has been used to provide psychological and physical comfort to individuals diagnosed with cancer for nearly 200 years. The goals of this review are:

1) to describe hypnosis and its components and to dispel misconceptions

2) to provide an overview of hypnosis as a cancer prevention and control technique (covering its use in weight management, smoking cessation, as an adjunct to diagnostic and treatment procedures, survivorship, and metastatic disease)

3) to discuss future research directions. Overall, the literature supports the benefits of hypnosis for improving quality of life during the course of cancer and its treatment.

CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians, Volume 63, Issue 1, pages 31-44, January/February 2013
By: Guy H. Montgomery Ph.D., Director, Integrative Behavioral Medicine Program, Associate Professor, Department of Oncological Sciences, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY

Julie B. Schnur Ph.D., Co-Director, Integrative Behavioral Medicine Program, Assistant Professor, Department of Oncological Sciences, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY

Kate Kravits MA, RN, HNB-BC, LPC, NCC, ATR-BC, Senior Research Specialist, Division of Nursing Research and Education, Department of Population Sciences, City of Hope, Duarte, CA

Study 2: Hypnosis for Cancer: Another Overview and Suggestions for Future Use and Research Hypnosis in Cancer Care.
http://bscw.rediris.es/pub/bscw.cgi/d4501369/Liossi-Hypnosis_cancer_care.pdf

Notes: Despite conclusive evidence for the efficacy of clinical hypnosis in the management of many cancer related symptoms and particularly acute and chronic pain, hypnosis is currently under-utilized in these applications. This paper gives a brief overview of the contemporary uses of hypnosis in pediatric and adult oncology and shows how hypnosis can be integrated into a total therapeutic process based on the needs and goals of the patient and the health care team treating them. The first section describes studies that have evaluated hypnosis in adult oncology. The second half consists of a review of the hypnosis literature in pediatric oncology. The paper concludes with suggestions for future research, and implications for clinical practice.

Contemp. Hypnosis 23(1): 47-57 (2006)
By: Christina Liossi, University of Southampton, UK

Study 3: Self-Hypnosis for Pain and Anxiety During Biopsy Outpatient Procedures
Adjunctive self-hypnotic relaxation for outpatient medical procedures: A prospective randomized trial with women undergoing large core breast biopsy
http://www.painjournalonline.com/article/S0304-3959(06)00393-9/abstract

Results: Women’s anxiety increased significantly in the standard group (logit slope=0.18, p<0.001), did not change in the empathy group (slope=-0.04, p=0.45), and decreased significantly in the hypnosis group (slope=-0.27, p<0.001). Pain increased significantly in all three groups (logit slopes: standard care=0.53, empathy=0.37, hypnosis=0.34; all p<0.001) though less steeply with hypnosis and empathy than standard care (p=0.024 and p=0.018, respectively). Room time and cost were not significantly different in an univariate ANOVA despite hypnosis and empathy requiring an additional professional: 46min/$161 for standard care, 43min/$163 for empathy, and 39min/$152 for hypnosis. We conclude that, while both structured empathy and hypnosis decrease procedural pain and anxiety, hypnosis provides more powerful anxiety relief without undue cost and thus appears attractive for outpatient pain management.

Notes: Medical procedures in outpatient settings have limited options of managing pain and anxiety pharmacologically. We therefore assessed whether this can be achieved by adjunct self-hypnotic relaxation in a common and particularly anxiety provoking procedure. Two hundred and thirty-six women referred for large core needle breast biopsy to an urban tertiary university-affiliated medical center were prospectively randomized to receive standard care (n=76), structured empathic attention (n=82), or self-hypnotic relaxation (n=78) during their procedures. Patients’ self-ratings at 10min-intervals of pain and anxiety on 0-10 verbal analog scales with 0=no pain/anxiety at all, 10=worst pain/anxiety possible, were compared in an ordinal logistic regression model.

PAIN, Volume 126, Issue 1, Pages 155-164, 15 December 2006
By: Elvira V. Lang, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center/Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiology
Kevin S. Berbaum, Salomao Faintuch, Olga Hatsiopoulou, Noami Halsey, Xinyu Li, Michael L. Berbaum, Eleanor Laser, Janet Baum

Study 4: Pre-Surgery Hypnosis for Breast Biopsies – Post-Surgery Pain and Anxiety
Brief presurgery hypnosis reduces distress and pain in excisional breast biopsy patients
http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/00207140208410088#preview

Results: Hypnosis reduced postsurgery pain and distress.

Notes: Each year, hundreds of thousands of women undergo excisional breast biopsies for definitive diagnosis. Not only do these patients experience pain associated with the procedure, but they also endure distress associated with the threat of cancer. To determine the impact of brief presurgical hypnosis on these patients’ postsurgery pain and distress and to explore possible mediating mechanisms of these effects, 20 excisional breast biopsy patients were randomly assigned to a hypnosis or control group (standard care).

Hypnosis reduced postsurgery pain and distress.
International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, Volume 50, Issue 1, 2002, pages 17-32
By: Guy H. Montgomerya, Christina R. Weltza, Megan Seltza, Dana H. Bovbjerga, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York

Study 5: Hypnosis to Reduce Presurgical Distress Regarding Breast Biopsies
Hypnosis decreases presurgical distress in excisional breast biopsy patients.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18227298

Results: Post intervention, and before surgery, patients in the hypnosis group had significantly lower mean values for presurgery VAS emotional upset (16.5 vs 38.2, P < 0.0001, d = .85), VAS depressed mood (6.6 vs 19.9, P < 0.02, d = .67), and SV-POMS anxiety (10.0 vs 5.0, P < 0.0001, d = 0.85); and significantly higher levels for VAS relaxation (75.7 vs 54.2, P < 0.001, d = -0.76) than attention controls. The study results indicate that a brief presurgery hypnosis intervention can be an effective means of controlling presurgical distress in women awaiting diagnostic breast cancer surgery.

Notes: Excisional breast biopsy is associated with presurgical psychological distress. Such distress is emotionally taxing, and may have negative implications for postsurgical side effects and satisfaction with anesthesia. We investigated the ability of a brief hypnosis session to reduce presurgical psychological distress in excisional breast biopsy patients. Ninety patients presenting for excisional breast biopsy were randomly assigned to receive either a 15-minute presurgery hypnosis session (n = 49, mean age: 46.4 (95% CI: 42.3-50.4)) or a 15-minute presurgery attention control session (n = 41, mean age: 45.0 (95% CI: 40.8-49.2)). The hypnosis session involved suggestions for increased relaxation and decreased distress. The attention control session involved nondirective empathic listening. Presurgery distress was measured using visual analog scales (VAS) and the short version of the Profile of Mood States (SV-POMS). Data were analyzed using analysis of variance and chi2 procedures.

Anesth Analg. 2008 Feb;106(2):440-4
By: J. B. Schnur, D. H. Bovbjerg, D. David, K. Tatrow, A. B. Goldfarb, J. H. Silverstein, C. R. Weltz, G. H. Montgomery, Department of Oncological Sciences, Box 1130, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, 1 Gustave L. Levy Place, New York City, NY 10029-6574, USA

Study 6: Hypnosis to Alleviate Anxiety Related to Bone Marrow Aspirates and Biopsies
A Randomized Trial of Hypnosis for Relief of Pain and Anxiety in Adult Cancer Patients Undergoing Bone Marrow Procedures
http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/07347332.2012.664261#preview

Results: The hypnosis intervention reduced the anxiety associated with this procedure, but the difference in pain scores between the two groups was not statistically significant. The authors conclude that brief hypnosis concurrently administered reduces patient anxiety during bone marrow aspirates and biopsies but may not adequately control pain.

Notes: Pain and anxiety are closely associated with bone marrow aspirates and biopsies. To determine whether hypnosis administered concurrently with the procedure can ameliorate these morbidities, the authors randomly assigned 80 cancer patients undergoing bone marrow aspirates and biopsies to either hypnosis or standard of care.

Journal of Psychosocial Oncology, Volume 30, Issue 3, 2012, pages 281-293
By: Alison Snow LCSW-Ra, David Dorfman PhDb, Rachel Warbet LCSWa, Meredith Cammarata LCSWa, Stephanie Eisenman LCSWa, Felice Zilberfein PhDa, Luis Isola MDc & Shyamala Navada MDc

Author Affiliations:
a:  Department of Social Work Services, Mount Sinai Medical Center, New York, NY, USA
b:  Department of Psychiatry, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA
c:  Tisch Cancer Institute, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA)

Study 7: Hypnosis Versus Analgesic Cream (Local Anesthetic) to Relieve Lumbar Puncture Induced Pain and Anxiety in Cancer Patients Aged 6 to 16
Randomized clinical trial of local anesthetic versus a combination of local anesthetic with self-hypnosis in the management of pediatric procedure-related pain.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16719602

Results: Confirmed that patients in the local anesthetic plus hypnosis group reported less anticipatory anxiety and less procedure-related pain and anxiety and that they were rated as demonstrating less behavioral distress during the procedure. The level of hypnotizability was significantly associated with the magnitude of treatment benefit, and this benefit was maintained when patients used hypnosis independently.

Notes: A prospective controlled trial was conducted to compare the efficacy of an analgesic cream (eutectic mixture of local anesthetics, or EMLA) with a combination of EMLA with hypnosis in the relief of lumbar puncture-induced pain and anxiety in 45 pediatric cancer patients (age 6-16 years). The study also explored whether young patients can be taught and can use hypnosis independently as well as whether the therapeutic benefit depends on hypnotizability. Patients were randomized to 1 of 3 groups: local anesthetic, local anesthetic plus hypnosis, and local anesthetic plus attention.

Health Psychol. 2006 May;25(3):307-15
By: C. Liossi, P. White, P. Hatira, School of Psychology, University of Southampton, Southampton, United Kingdom

Study 8: Hypnosis for Colonoscopies: Anxiety and Pain (as well as decreasing Colonoscopy Recovery Time)
Hypnosis to Manage Anxiety and Pain Associated with Colonoscopy for Colorectal Cancer Screening: Case Studies and Possible Benefits
http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/00207140600856780#preview

Results: Results suggest that hypnosis appears to be a feasible method to manage anxiety and pain associated with colonoscopy, reduces the need for sedation, and may have other benefits such as reduced vasovagal events and recovery time.

Notes: This study explored using hypnosis for pain and anxiety management in 6 colonoscopy patients (5 men, 1 woman), who received a hypnotic induction and instruction in self-hypnosis on the day of their colonoscopy. Patients’ levels of anxiety were obtained before and after the hypnotic induction using Visual Analogue Scales (VAS). Following colonoscopy, VASs were used to assess anxiety and pain during colonoscopy, perceived effectiveness of hypnosis, and patient satisfaction with medical care. Hypnotizability was assessed at a separate appointment. The authors also obtained data (time for procedure, number of vasovagal events, and recovery time) for 10 consecutive patients who received standard care.

International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, Volume 54, Issue 4, 2006.
By: Gary Elkins, Joseph White, Parita Patel, Joel Marcus, Michelle M. Perfect und Guy H. Montgomery

Author Affiliations:
a:  Baylor University, Waco, Texas, USA
b:  Scott and White Memorial Hospital, Temple, Texas, USA
c:  Texas A & M University College of Medicine, College Station, Texas, USA
d:  Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, New York, USA)

Study 9: Hypnosis for Biopsy or Lumpectomy for Breast Cancer – Effect on Amount of Analgesics/Sedatives Required, Pain, Nausea, Fatigue, Discomfort, and Upset (as well as Reduced Surgical Time)
A Randomized Clinical Trial of a Brief Hypnosis Intervention to Control Side Effects in Breast Surgery Patients
http://jnci.oxfordjournals.org/content/99/17/1304.full.pdf+html

Results: Patients in the hypnosis group required less propofol (means = 64.01 versus 96.64 µg; difference = 32.63; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 3.95 to 61.30) and lidocaine (means = 24.23 versus 31.09 mL; difference = 6.86; 95% CI = 3.05 to 10.68) than patients in the control group. Patients in the hypnosis group also reported less pain intensity (means = 22.43 versus 47.83; difference = 25.40; 95% CI = 17.56 to 33.25), pain unpleasantness (means = 21.19 versus 39.05; difference = 17.86; 95% CI = 9.92 to 25.80), nausea (means = 6.57 versus 25.49; difference = 18.92; 95% CI = 12.98 to 24.87), fatigue (means = 29.47 versus 54.20; difference = 24.73; 95% CI = 16.64 to 32.83), discomfort (means = 23.01 versus 43.20; difference = 20.19; 95% CI = 12.36 to 28.02), and emotional upset (means = 8.67 versus 33.46; difference = 24.79; 95% CI = 18.56 to 31.03). Institutional costs for surgical breast cancer procedures were $8561 per patient at Mount Sinai School of Medicine. Patients in the hypnosis group cost the institution $772.71 less per patient than those in the control group (95% CI = 75.10 to 1469.89), mainly due to reduced surgical time.
Conclusions: Hypnosis was superior to attention control regarding propofol and lidocaine use; pain, nausea, fatigue, discomfort, and emotional upset at discharge; and institutional cost. Overall, the present data support the use of hypnosis with breast cancer surgery patients.

Notes: Breast cancer surgery is associated with side effects, including postsurgical pain, nausea, and fatigue. We carried out a randomized clinical trial to test the hypotheses that a brief presurgery hypnosis intervention would decrease intraoperative anesthesia and analgesic use and side effects associated with breast cancer surgery and that it would be cost effective. We randomly assigned 200 patients who were scheduled to undergo excisional breast biopsy or lumpectomy (mean age 48.5 years) to a 15-minute presurgery hypnosis session conducted by a psychologist or nondirective empathic listening (attention control).. Intraoperative anesthesia use (i.e., of the analgesics lidocaine and fentanyl and the sedatives propofol and midazolam) was assessed. Patient-reported pain and other side effects as measured on a visual analog scale (0-100) were assessed at discharge, as was use of analgesics in the recovery room. Institutional costs and time in the operating room were assessed via chart review.

JNCI J Natl Cancer Inst Volume 99, Issue 17Pp. 1304-1312
By: Guy H. Montgomery, Dana H. Bovbjerg, Julie B. Schnur, Daniel David, Alisan Goldfarb, Christina R. Weltz, Clyde Schechter, Joshua Graff-Zivin, Kristin Tatrow, Donald D. Price and Jeffrey H. Silverstein

Author Affiliations:

  1. Department of Oncological Sciences (GHM, DHB, JBS)
  2. Department of Surgery (AG, CRW), and Department of Anesthesiology Sciences (JHS), Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY
  3. Department of Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, Babes-Bolyai University, Cluj-Napoca, Romania (DD)
  4. Department of Family and Social Medicine, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY (CS)
  5. Department of Health Policy and Management, Columbia University, New York, NY (JGZ)
  6. Department of Psychology, Good Shepherd Rehabilitation Hospital, Allentown, PA (KT)
  7. Departments of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery and Neuroscience, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (DDP)

Study 10: Self-Hypnosis for Percutaneous Tumor Treatment – Pain and Anxiety
Beneficial Effects of Hypnosis and Adverse Effects of Empathic Attention during Percutaneous Tumor Treatment: When Being Nice Does Not Suffice
http://www.jvir.org/article/S1051-0443(08)00180-2/abstract

Results: Patients treated with hypnosis experienced significantly less pain and anxiety than those in the standard care and empathy groups at several time intervals and received significantly fewer median drug units (mean, 2.0; interquartile range [IQR], 1-4) than patients in the standard (mean, 3.0; IQR, 1.5-5.0; P = .0147) and empathy groups (mean, 3.50; IQR, 2.0-5.9; P = .0026). Thirty-one of 65 patients (48%) in the empathy group had adverse events, which was significantly more than in the hypnosis group (eight of 66; 12%; P = .0001) and standard care group (18 of 70; 26%; P = .0118).

Notes: For their tumor embolization or radiofrequency ablation, 201 patients were randomized to receive standard care, empathic attention with defined behaviors displayed by an additional provider, or self-hypnotic relaxation including the defined empathic attention behaviors. All had local anesthesia and access to intravenous medication. Main outcome measures were pain and anxiety assessed every 15 minutes by patient self-report, medication use (with 50 µg fentanyl or 1 mg midazolam counted as one unit), and adverse events, defined as occurrences requiring extra medical attention, including systolic blood pressure fluctuations (=50 mm Hg change to >180 mm Hg or <105 mm Hg), vasovagal episodes, cardiac events, and respiratory impairment.

Journal of Vascular and Interventional Radiology, Volume 19, Issue 6, Pages 897-905, June 2008
Elvira V. Lang, MD, Kevin S. Berbaum, PhD, Stephen G. Pauker, MD, Salomao Faintuch, MD, Gloria M. Salazar, MD, Susan Lutgendorf, PhD, Eleanor Laser, PhD, Henrietta Logan, PhD, David Spiegel, MD (Department of Radiology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center/Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA

Study 11: Hypnosis for Venipuncture for Blood Sampling of Cancer Patients Aged 6 to 16 – Pain, Anxiety (and also Anxiety of Parents)
A randomized clinical trial of a brief hypnosis intervention to control venipuncture-related pain of pediatric cancer patients
http://www.painjournalonline.com/article/S0304-3959(09)00046-3/abstract

Results: Confirmed that patients in the local anesthetic plus hypnosis group reported less anticipatory anxiety, and less procedure-related pain and anxiety, and were rated as demonstrating less behavioral distress during the procedure than patients in the other two groups. Parents whose children were randomized to the local anesthetic plus hypnosis condition experienced less anxiety during their child’s procedure than parents whose children had been randomized to the other two conditions. The therapeutic benefit of the brief hypnotic intervention was maintained in the follow-up.

Notes: Venipuncture for blood sampling can be a distressing experience for a considerable number of children. A prospective controlled trial was conducted to compare the efficacy of a local anesthetic (EMLA) with a combination of EMLA with self-hypnosis in the relief of venipuncture-induced pain and anxiety in 45 pediatric cancer outpatients (age 6-16years). A secondary aim of the trial was to test whether the intervention will have a beneficial effect on parents’ anxiety levels during their child’s procedure. Patients were randomized to one of three groups: local anesthetic, local anesthetic plus hypnosis, and local anesthetic plus attention.

PAIN, Volume 142, Issue 3, Pages 255-263, April 2009
By: Christina Liossi, Paul White, Popi Hatira, School of Psychology, University of Southampton, Highfield, Southampton S017 1BJ, UK

Study 12: Hypnosis for Chemotherapy Related Nausea and Vomiting
Hypnosis for nausea and vomiting in cancer chemotherapy: a systematic review of the research evidence
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1365-2354.2006.00736.x/abstract

Results: Studies report positive results including statistically significant reductions in anticipatory and “cancer chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting” (“CINV”). Meta-analysis revealed a large effect size of hypnotic treatment when compared with treatment as usual, and the effect was at least as large as that of cognitive-behavioral therapy. Meta-analysis has demonstrated that hypnosis could be a clinically valuable intervention for anticipatory and CINV in children with cancer.

Notes: To systematically review the research evidence on the effectiveness of hypnosis for cancer chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV). A comprehensive search of major biomedical databases including MEDLINE, EMBASE, ClNAHL, PsycINFO and the Cochrane Library was conducted. Specialist complementary and alternative medicine databases were searched and efforts were made to identify unpublished and ongoing research. Citations were included from the databases’ inception to March 2005. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were appraised and meta-analysis undertaken. Clinical commentaries were obtained. Six RCTs evaluating the effectiveness of hypnosis in CINV were found. In five of these studies the participants were children.

European Journal of Cancer Care, Volume 16, Issue 5, pages 402-412, September 2007
By: J. RICHARDSON bsc(hons), phd, rn, cpsychol, pgce, rnt, reader in nursing and health studies1,*, J.E. SMITH ba(hons), msc, former research assistant2, G. MCCALL dcr(t), msc, applied hypnosis, senior research radiographer & psychological support3, A. RICHARDSON bn(hons), msc, phd, rn, pgdiped, rnt, professor of cancer and palliative nursing care4, K. PILKINGTON bpharm(hons), dipinfsci, msc, pcme, mrpharms5, I. KIRSCH ba , ma , phd , professor of psychology 6

Author Information:

  1. Faculty of Health and Social Work, Portland Square, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth, Devon
  2. NHSP/CAMEO project, Research Council for Complementary Medicine, South-East London Cancer Centre, St Thomas’ Hospital, London
  3. The Florence Nightingale School of Nursing and Midwifery, King’s College London, Franklin Wilkins Building, London
  4. Project Manager/Senior Research Fellow, School of Integrated Health and Research Council for Complementary Medicine, University of Westminster, 115 New Cavendish Street, London
  5. School of Applied Psychosocial Studies, Portland Square, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth, Devon, UK

Study 13: Hypnosis and Survivorship (Life with Cancer Post Treatment) – Hot Flashes in Breast Cancer Survivors
Randomized Trial of a Hypnosis Intervention for Treatment of Hot Flashes Among Breast Cancer Survivors
http://jco.ascopubs.org/content/26/31/5022

Results: Fifty-one randomly assigned women completed the study. By the end of the treatment period, hot flash scores (frequency × average severity) decreased 68% from baseline to end point in the hypnosis arm (P < .001). Significant improvements in self-reported anxiety, depression, interference of hot flashes on daily activities, and sleep were observed for patients who received the hypnosis intervention (P < .005) in comparison to the no treatment control group.
Conclusion: Hypnosis appears to reduce perceived hot flashes in breast cancer survivors and may have additional benefits such as reduced anxiety and depression, and improved sleep.

Notes: Hot flashes are a significant problem for many breast cancer survivors. Hot flashes can cause discomfort, disrupted sleep, anxiety, and decreased quality of life. A well-tolerated and effective mind-body treatment for hot flashes would be of great value. On the basis of previous case studies, this study was developed to evaluate the effect of a hypnosis intervention for hot flashes. Sixty female breast cancer survivors with hot flashes were randomly assigned to receive hypnosis intervention (five weekly sessions) or no treatment. Eligible patients had to have a history of primary breast cancer without evidence of detectable disease and 14 or more weekly hot flashes for at least 1 month. The major outcome measure was a bivariate construct that represented hot flash frequency and hot flash score, which was analyzed by a classic sums and differences comparison. Secondary outcome measures were self-reports of interference of hot flashes on daily activities.

Journal of Clinical Oncology, JCO November 1, 2008 vol. 26 no. 31 5022-5026
By: Gary Elkins, Joel Marcus, Vered Stearns, Michelle Perfect, M. Hasan Rajab, Christopher Ruud, Lynne Palamara and Timothy Keith

Author Affiliations:

  1. From the Department of Psychology and Neuroscience, Baylor University, Waco
  2. Scott and White Memorial Hospital and Clinic, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Temple
  3. Cancer Treatment and Research Center, San Antonio; and University of Texas at Austin, TX; University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ
  4. Department of Oncology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD

Study 14: Use of Hypnosis for Terminally Ill Hospice Cancer Patients – Insomnia, Itchiness, Bowel Issues, Pain, Chemotherapy Side Effects, Relaxation (and also suggests best time for Cancer Patients to start Hypnotherapy is right at time of diagnosis.)
Efficacy of Hypnotherapy as a supplement therapy in Cancer Intervention
http://bscw.rediris.es/pub/bscw.cgi/d4431493/Peynovska-Efficacy_hypnotherapy_supplement_therapy_cancer

Results: Of the 20 patients who completed the three sessions of hypnotherapy all reported varying degrees of anxiety. 5 patients wanted to have hypnotherapy for insomnia as a primary presenting complain, 1 for excessive itchiness during night time, 1 for excessively frequent bowel actions – 8 to 10 times a day for the last year, which invariably interfered with his social life and prevented him from going out, 8 wanted to have hypnotherapy for pain control, 3 patients opted for hypnotherapy to prevent the side effects of chemotherapy and 2 patients had it specifically for severe anxiety and panic attacks.
The 5 patients who had hypnotherapy for insomnia all reported improved sleeping patterns even after the first session. After the third session none of them complained of insomnia and this result was sustained till the followup, which was 3 to 4 months after the first session. They also reported increased energy levels, less tiredness and improved appetite. 2 of the patients with insomnia have been on Temazepam 10mg before bed, which they voluntarily stopped taking after the first session.

The patient with nighttime itchiness reported that their itchiness stopped after the first session and she continued with the remaining two hypnotherapy sessions working towards pain control.

The patient with frequent bowel action reported that he managed to half the number of times he went to the toilet after the second session.
Of the 8 patients who had hypnotherapy for pain control, all reported that the intensity of pain has significantly been reduced and as a result they have reduced heir dose of opiate analgesics taken daily.

The 3 patients, who took part in the study to prevent the side effects of chemotherapy, also reported very good results with no nausea, sickness and less loss of energy, which was in contrast with their previous experience with chemotherapy.

Most of the patients (19 out of 20) reported that after the first two hypnotherapy sessions they were able to relax for the first time in a very long period, felt less tired and more energetic, had more refreshing night sleep and as a result were able to cope better with their daily activities.

It appears that the best time for hypnotherapy to be offered to cancer patients is right at the time of diagnosis. In that way, patients will be able to develop better coping skills much earlier in the disease process, which will help them to possibly prevent severe anxiety, depression and panic attacks from developing. They will have better treatment compliance and generally will have a more positive psychological response to their illness, which has been suggested as a good prognostic factor with an influence on survival.

Notes: All the patients who took part in the trial were day hospice patients of Ann Delhom Centre, Wisdom Hospice, Rochester, UK. Patients were offered three hypnotherapy sessions and were assessed before the first session and after the third one together with a follow up after 3/4 months after the last session. On the first session all the patients were taught ”progressive muscle relaxation” and self- hypnosis. Short ego boosting was also incorporated at the end of the session. The second and third sessions were different for every patient depending on the expressed symptoms and because of that were always individually tailored. Most of the sessions included guided imagery and direct therapeutic suggestions.

2 European Journal of Clinical Hypnosis: 2005 Volume 6 – Issue 1
By: Dr Rumi Peynovska, Dr Jackie Fisher, Dr David Oliver, Prof V.M. MathewStone House Hospital, Dartford, West Kent NHS and Social Care Trust, Wisdom Hospice, Rochester, Medway NHS Trust
Dr Rumi Peynovska MD, MSc, FBAMH – Research Fellow, Stone House Hospital, Dartford, West Kent NHS Trust
Dr Jackie Fisher BSc, MRCGP – Consultant in Palliative Medicine, Wisdom Hospice, Rochester, Medway NHS Trust
Dr David Oliver BSc, FRCGP – Consultant and Medical Director, Wisdom Hospice, Rochester, Medway NHS Trust
Prof. V.M. Mathew MBBS, MPhil, MRCPsych – Clinical Director, Stone House Hospital, Dartford, West Kent NHS Trust

Hypnosis and Burns


A number of studies have shown that hypnosis can reduce the pain experienced during a variety of medical conditions including burn-wound debridement, [1]. The International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis found that hypnosis relieved the pain of 75% of 933 subjects participating in 27 different experiments.[2]

Hypnosis is effective in reducing pain from and coping with cancer and other chronic conditions. Nausea and other symptoms related to incurable diseases may also be managed with hypnosis.[3]

For some psychologists who uphold the altered state theory of hypnosis, pain relief in response to hypnosis is said to be the result of the brain’s dual-processing functionality. This effect is obtained either through the process of selective attention or dissociation, in which both theories involve the presence of activity in pain receptive regions of the brain, and a difference in the processing of the stimuli by the hypnotised subject.[4]

The American Psychological Association published a study comparing the effects of hypnosis, ordinary suggestion and placebo in reducing pain. The study found that highly suggestible individuals experienced a greater reduction in pain from hypnosis compared with placebo, whereas less suggestible subjects experienced no pain reduction from hypnosis when compared with placebo. Ordinary non-hypnotic suggestion also caused reduction in pain compared to placebo, but was able to reduce pain in a wider range of subjects (both high and low suggestible) than hypnosis. The results showed that it is primarily the subject’s responsiveness to suggestion, whether within the context of hypnosis or not, that is the main determinant of causing reduction in pain.[5]

Burns Table

Study 1: Hypnosis to Control Pain of Burn Patients
An Experimental Study of Hypnosis in Painful Burns
http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/00029157.1978.10403952#preview

Results: Both studies revealed significantly lower percentages of medication used (p < .01) by the hypnotic groups than control groups.

Notes: The present study examines the usefulness of hypnosis in the control of acute pain in thermal and electrically burned patients as an adjunctive analgesic during the routine care of burn wounds. It was hypothesized that the use of hypnosis would lead to significant reductions in the amount of drugs needed as compared to patients using medication only. Anxiety and discomfort associated with daily tanking, debridement, and dressing changes were expected to be reduced because of the introduction of hypnotic procedures. The experimental study also examined the variables of age and percent of burns. Two studies were conducted including patients with 0-30% total body burns and 31-60% burns. A variety of hypnotic techniques were used.

American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis. Vol 21(1), Jul 1978, 3-12
By: John R. Wakeman, Jerold Z. Kaplan, Department of Psychiatry, Brooke Army Medical Center, USA, U.S. Army Institute of Surgical Research, Brooke Army Medical Center, USA, Psychology Service, Department of Psychiatry, Brooke Army Medical Center, Fort Sam Houston, Texas, USA)

Study 2: Hypnosis to Control Pain During Burn Wound Debridement
Hypnosis for the treatment of burn pain
http://psycnet.apa.org/index.cfm?fa=buy.optionToBuy&uid=1993-06886-001

Results: Only hypnotized subjects reported significant pain reductions relative to pre-treatment baseline. This result was corroborated by nurse VAS ratings. Findings indicate that hypnosis is a viable adjunct treatment for burn pain.

Notes: Investigated the clinical utility of hypnosis for controlling pain during wound debridement (removal of unhealthy tissue from a wound to promote healing). Thirty hospitalized burn patients and their nurses submitted visual analog scales (VASs) for pain during 2 consecutive daily wound debridements. On the 1st day, patients and nurses submitted baseline VAS ratings. Before the next day’s wound debridement, subjects received hypnosis, attention and information, or no treatment.

Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, Vol 60(5), Oct 1992, 713-717
By: David R. Patterson, John J. Everett, G. Leonard Burns, Janet A. Marvin, Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, Washington, USA

burns

Study 3: Hypnosis to Reduce Anxiety Before and During Dressing Changes of Burn Patients
Psychological approaches during dressing changes of burned patients: a prospective randomised study comparing hypnosis against stress reducing strategy
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0305417901000353

Results: The comparison of the two treatment groups indicated that VAS anxiety scores were significantly decreased before and during dressing changes when the hypnotic technique was used instead of stress reducing strategies (SRS).

Notes: A prospective study was designed to compare two psychological support interventions in controlling peri-dressing change pain and anxiety in severely burned patients. Thirty patients with a total burned surface area of 10-25%, requiring a hospital stay of at least 14 days, were randomized to receive either hypnosis or stress reducing strategies (SRS) adjunctively to routine intramuscular pre-dressing change analgesia and anxiolytic drugs. Visual analogue scale (VAS) scores for anxiety, pain, pain control and satisfaction were recorded at 2-day intervals throughout the 14-day study period, before, during and after dressing changes.

Burns, Volume 27, Issue 8, December 2001, Pages 793-799
By: Marie-Christine Frenay, Marie-Elisabeth Faymonville, Sabine Devlieger, Adelin Albert, Alain Vanderkelen, Burn Centre, Military Hospital Queen Astrid, Rue Bruyn, 1, 1120 Brussels, Belgium, Department of Anesthesiology, University Hospital, Liège, Belgium, Department of Biostatistics, University Hospital, Liège, Belgium

Study 4: Hypnosis for Pain in Severe Burn Patients
Hypnosis and pain in patients with severe burns: a pilot study
http://europepmc.org/abstract/MED/3228699

Results: Results show a 50-64 percent decrease in reported pain level for three patients and a 52 percent increase of pain for one patient. The mean decrease for these four patients was 30 percent (for overall as well as worst pain during dressing changes). A 30 percent reduction of anxiety level and a modest reduction of medication use were achieved concurrently. It is concluded that hypnosis is of potential value during dressing changes of burn patients.

Notes: This report presents a pilot study on the effectiveness of hypnosis in the control of pain during dressing changes of burn patients. Eight patients were treated, and all evaluated the interventions as beneficial. The treatment of four patients was more closely analyzed by obtaining pain and anxiety ratings daily.

Burns, Including Thermal Injury, 1988, 14(5):399-404
By: A. J. Van der Does, R. Van Dyck, R. E. Spijker, Burn Centre, Red Cross Hospital, Beverwijk, The Netherlands

180px-Burn_Degree_Diagram

Study 5: Hypnosis for Burn Pain – Review of Six Studies
Medical hypnosis for pain and psychological distress during burn wound debridement: a critical review
http://www.oapublishinglondon.com/article/540

Results: The results of these studies suggest that hypnosis may be more effective than structured attention for reducing patients’ pain and anxiety levels during wound debridement. The existing evidence suggests that hypnosis may be effective in managing pain and distress for burn victims who have difficulty coping during wound debridement.

Notes: This article offers a critical review of the literature currently available on the efficacy of medical hypnosis for managing pain and distress during burn wound debridement. Six studies involving a total of 217 participants met inclusion criteria and are discussed in detail.

OA Alternative Medicine 2013 Apr 01;1(1):10
By: J. Sliwinski, W. Fisher, A. Johnson, G. Elkins, Baylor University Mind-Body Medicine Research Lab, Waco, Texas, USA

Additional References:

  1. Patterson, David R.; Questad, Kent A.; De Lateur, Barbara J. (1989). “Hypnotherapy as an adjunct to narcotic analgesia for the treatment of pain for burn debridement”. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis 31 (3): 156–163.
  2. Nash, Michael R. “The Truth and the Hype of Hypnosis”. Scientific American: July 2001
  3. Kwekkeboom, K.L.; Gretarsdottir, E. (2006). “Systematic review of relaxation interventions for pain”. Journal of Nursing Scholarship 38 (3): 269–277.
  4. Myers, David G. (2014). Psychology: Tenth Edition in Modules (10th ed.). Worth Publishers. pp. 112–13.
  5. “Hypnosis, suggestion, and placebo in the reduction of experimental pain” faqs.org

Hypnosis and Bruxism (Teeth Grinding)


Bruxism is very common, particularly in conjunction with stress and anxiety and is often not recognised by the individual for lengthy periods of time. Many times it is not until someone else tells them to stop grinding their teeth, that a person becomes aware of it.

This unconsciously driven habit, as they all are, is very amenable to treatment by hypnosis because of the unconscious nature and the ability for hypnosis to access the unconscious enabling patients/clients, with guidance, to resolve the reasons behind the Bruxism.

As always you are free to make up your own mind after reading the research below.

Bruxism

Study 1: Case Study – Hypnosis Helps Nocturnal Bruxism
Nocturnal Bruxism and Hypnotherapy: A Case Study
http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/00207144.2013.753832?url_ver=Z39.88-2003&rfr_id=ori:rid:crossref.org&rfr_dat=cr_pub=pubmed#preview

Results: At the end of the 7 hypnotherapy sessions, the bruxism had disappeared. Follow-up 1 year later indicated that the bruxism had not returned, and the client had become more assertive in her relations with others and had more exploratory activities in her life directions. The latter had not been dealt with in therapy. Thus, there appeared to be a “ripple effect” of successful therapy from one part of her life into its other aspects.

Notes: This article describes a case study of a hypnotherapeutic treatment of nocturnal bruxism. The author saw the client for a total of 7 hypnotherapy sessions.
It seems that a third party obtained this full research article and provided more details at http://www.hypnotherapy-glasgow.net/index.php/glasgow-hypnotherapy-about-hypnotherapy/hypnotherapy-for-teeth-grinding-bruxism-in-glasgow/.

Some of those details are listed below.
The client had been bruxing for more than 20 years, only at night. The result had been a sore jaw most mornings and consistent sleep interruption. Hypnosis was focused around the following themes:

(a) Allowing herself to “let go” and to learn new things about herself. It was suggested that her “unconscious mind” (a metaphor, following Milton Erickson) would begin to learn new ways of acting in the world;

(b) Shedding old roles in life and old discomforts and pains. While she was in trance, it was suggested that her strategy in life so far had been conservational, in that she was protecting herself. She could now begin to adopt a strategy of being transformational. It was compared metaphorically to adding new rooms to an existing house; the central core of the house (herself) remains the same, while new rooms (representing new actions, new ways of looking at things, new ideas) undergo significant change. The same person grows and develops while remaining centrally the same. The phrase “growing and developing; developing and growing” was used;

(c) Making new connections among her thoughts, feelings, and actions as she grows and develops. It was suggested that these connections will go around, under, through, and over her walls, gradually crumbling them and making them more permeable and transparent. It was suggested that as she continues to grow and develop she will no longer need her old ways of coping and the discomfort to her mind and body (metaphorically the jaw pain) they have produced; and

(d) “Letting go” (multifaceted) – letting go of her fear and letting go of the pain in her jaw (phrased as discomfort). They were, it was suggested, elements of her past she has now outgrown.

About a year later after the hypnotherapy sessions, the client reported that the jaw pain had not returned. Furthermore, her relationship with her husband and especially her mother had continued to improve. She had even made plans to return to school for an advanced degree and said, “I don’t think I would have done that before.” The author noted that he usually avoids direct suggestions in hypnosis and instead uses metaphors and stories to avoid arousing resistance.
The International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis. 2013

Apr;61:205-18
By: E. Thomas Dowd, Dept. of Psychology, Kent State University, Kent, Ohio

Study 2: Case Study – Hypnosis Helps Bruxism (Improvement Maintained Five Years After Hypnosis)
Understanding change: five-year follow-up of brief hypnotic treatment of chronic bruxism
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8203355

Results: A woman with a 60-year history of bruxism became symptom-free using hypnosis. This case demonstrates how enduring change may occur. Follow-up assessments at 2, 3, and 5 years revealed that she continued to be symptom-free with her self-reports corroborated by her spouse and family dentist.

Notes: This paper describes the treatment of a 63-year-old woman with a 60-year history of nocturnal bruxism. Treatment included assessment, two psychotherapy sessions, including a paradoxical behavior prescription to reduce daytime worrying, hypnotic suggestions for control of nocturnal grinding, and reinforcement of the patient’s expectations for success.

Am J Clin Hypn. 1994 Apr;36(4):276-81
By: M. B. LaCrosse, Monroe Mental Health Center, Inc., Norfolk, NE

Study 3: Hypnosis Helps Nocturnal Bruxism and Related Facial Pain
Suggestive hypnotherapy for nocturnal bruxism: a pilot study
http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/00029157.1991.10402942#.UhqVYRavszI

Results: The bruxers showed a significant decrease in EMG activity; they also experienced less facial pain and their partners reported less bruxing noise immediately following treatment and after 4 to 36 months.

Notes: This study describes the use of suggestive hypnotherapy and looks at its effectiveness in treating bruxism. Eight subjects who reported bruxism with symptoms such as muscle pain and complaints of bruxing noise from sleep partners were accepted into the study. An objective baseline of the bruxing was established using a portable electromyogram (EMG) detector attached over the masseter muscle during sleep. Hypnotherapy was then employed. Both self-reports and posttreatment EMG recordings were used to evaluate the hypnotherapy. Long-term effects were evaluated by self-reports only.

American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis. 1991 Apr;33(4):248-53
By: J. H. Clarke, P. J. Reynolds

Study 4: Hypnosis for Temporomandibular Disorders (problems with the jaw, jaw joint and surrounding facial muscles)
Medical hypnosis for temporomandibular disorders: Treatment efficacy and medical utilization outcome
http://www.calmhorizon.co.uk/downloads/tmd-and-hypnosis.pdf

Results: Statistical analysis of this open trial suggests that medical hypnosis is a potentially valuable treatment modality for temporomandibular disorders (TMD). After hypnosis, patients reported a significant decrease in pain frequency (F [3, 87] = 14.79, P < .001), pain duration (F [3, 87] = 9.56, P < .001), and pain intensity (F [3, 87] = 15.08, P < .001), and an increase in daily functioning. Analysis suggests that their symptoms did not simply spontaneously improve, and that their treatment gains were maintained for 6 months after hypnosis treatment.

Notes: The aim of this study was to examine the effectiveness of medical hypnosis on reducing the pain symptoms of temporomandibular disorders (TMD).Twenty-eight patients who were recalcitrant to conservative treatment for TMD participated in a medical hypnosis treatment program and completed measures of their pain symptoms on 4 separate occasions: during wait list, before hypnotic treatment, after hypnotic treatment, and at a 6-month follow-up.

Hypnosis involved, typically with eye closure inductions, imagery to evoke relaxation, catalepsy of a limb, hypnotic-deepening techniques, metaphors to induce automatic or unconscious bodily responses, hypnotic analgesia and anesthesia, and suggestions that use muscle tension, pain, or both as a cue for automatic muscle relaxation. An example of this follows: “I will now give you a very powerful post-hypnotic suggestion… that should you ever feel any tension in your jaw… head… neck… or shoulders… that is related to your medical, dental condition… it will be an immediate signal and cue to you for your muscles to relax… you will immediately take 2 deep relaxing breaths… and envision the healing ball causing the muscles to immediately relax… let go… release the tension… numbing the entire area… and then absorbing… any remaining pain or discomfort in those areas… as those muscles relax some more… and that’s just fine… you may be consciously aware of carrying out this healing process… or maybe just simply aware of carrying this process out at an unconscious level… as those muscles let go of the tension immediately… and your healing continues… and you will be surprised to find that this process occurs even during your sleep… instructing you that your unconscious is protecting you whether you had realized it or not…” with the addition of posthypnotic suggestions for relapse prevention. At the end of each session, patients were instructed to practice daily self-hypnosis with audiotaped recordings of the hypnotic inductions.

Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 2000;90:54-63
By: E. Simon, D. Lewis. Eric P. Simon, Ph.D., ABPP (Department of Psychology, Multi-Disciplinary Pain Clinic) and David M. Lewis, DDS, (Dept of Dentistry) Honolulu, Hawaii, Tripler Regional Medical Center and the University of Hawaii.

Hypnosis and Blood Pressure


Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) kills over 160,000 individuals every year in the UK and is still the greatest cause of mortality in women. Furthermore, over 40,000 premature deaths, those in individuals under 75 years of age, are caused by CVD, with more than two thirds of these occurring in men.

Source: British Heart Foundation – Cardiovascular Disease Statistics 2014

CVDs are the number 1 cause of death globally: more people die annually from CVDs than from any other cause with an estimated 17.5 million people died from CVDs in 2012, representing 31% of all global deaths. Of these deaths, an estimated 7.4 million were due to coronary heart disease and 6.7 million were due to stroke .

Source: World Health Organisation – Cardiovascular Disease

Blausen_0486_HighBloodPressure_01

Study 1: Hypnosis Reduces Blood Pressure Short-Term and Long-Term
Effectiveness of Hypnosis in Reducing Mild Essential Hypertension: A One-Year Follow-Up
http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/00207140600995893

Results: The present study investigates the effectiveness of hypnosis in reducing mild essential hypertension. Results show that hypnosis is effective in reducing blood pressure in the short term but also in the middle and long terms.

Notes: Thirty participants who were suffering from mild essential hypertension were randomly assigned to either a control group (which did not receive any treatment) or a hypnosis group (where each person received 8 individually tailored hypnosis sessions).

International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, Vol. 55, Issue 1, 2007
By: M. C. Gay, Univ. of Paris, France

average-blood-pressure-for-age

Study 2: Hypnosis Helps Lower Blood Pressure and Reduces Need for Blood Pressure Medicine Following Hospitalization
Pilot study of the effect of self-hypnosis on the medical management of essential hypertension.
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/(SICI)1099-1700(199910)15:4%3C243::AID-SMI820%3E3.0.CO;2-O/abstract

Results: On follow-up, the hypnosis group showed greater downward change in diastolic blood pressure than the monitored group, with the attention-only group in between. Additionally, no subjects in the hypnosis group required upward titration of medications. The results suggest the value of adding self-hypnosis to the standard medical treatment for hypertension.

Notes: Medical patients diagnosed as hypertensive whose blood pressures were normalized while they were hospitalized were often found to require upward titration of medication upon follow-up as outpatients. Self-hypnosis was taught to one group of hospitalized patients; a second group received equal attention and time to relax without the specified procedure; and a third group was monitored with no intervention.

Stress Medicine, Volume 15, Issue 4, Pages 243-247, October 1999
By: Richard Raskin Ph.D., Charles Raps Ph.D., Frederic Luskin Ph.D., Pace University, New York, USA, Veteran’s Hospital, Northport, USA, Stanford Center for Research in Disease Prevention, Stanford, USA, Private Practice, Roslyn, New York, USA

large

Study 3: Hypnosis and Biofeedback for Hypertension
The use of hypnosis and biofeedback procedures for essential hypertension.
http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/00207147708415989?journalCode=nhyp20#preview

Results: Hypnosis only and biofeedback only procedures were both capable of providing significant lowering of diastolic pressure. However, in intergroup comparisons, the hypnosis only procedure showed the most impressive effect. Unexpectedly, the procedure of combining hypnosis and biofeedback into one technique was as ineffective as the measurement only procedure.

Notes: In an attempt to evaluate a procedure combining 2 techniques, hypnosis and biofeedback, which might effect significant changes in diastolic blood pressure in essential hypertensives, subjects were placed in 1 of 4 groups: hypnosis only, biofeedback only, hypnosis and biofeedback combined, or measurement only. The first phase-training sessions and brief follow-ups (1 week and 1 month) of the long-term study with 6 monthly followup periods, was evaluated.

International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, Vol. 25, Issue 4, 1977
By: Howard Friedman and Harvey A. Taub, Syracuse Veterans Administration Hospital and State University of New York Upstate Medical Center, Syracuse, New York, USA

Hypnosis and Bedwetting


Key Causes

Study 1: Hypnosis and Self-Hypnosis for Bedwetting (Enuresis) – Children Aged 5 to 16
Hypnosis and self-hypnosis in the management of nocturnal enuresis: a comparative study with imipramine therapy.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8259762

Results: Of the patients treated with imipramine (a prescription antidepressant medication), 76% had a positive response (all dry beds); for patients treated with hypnotic strategies, 72% responded positively. At the 9-month follow-up, 68% of patients in the hypnosis group maintained a positive response, whereas only 24% of the imipramine group did.

Notes: Enuretic (bedwetting) children, ranging in age from 5 to 16 years, underwent 3 months of therapy with imipramine (N = 25) or hypnosis (N = 25). After termination of the active treatment, the hypnosis group continued practicing self-hypnosis daily during the follow-up period of another 6 months.

Am J Clin Hypn. 1993 Oct;36(2):113-9
By: S. Banerjee, A. Srivastav, B. M. Palan, Pramukhswami Medical College, India

Study 2: Hypnosis and Bedwetting – Boys Aged 8 to 13
Hypnotherapy as a Treatment for Enuresis.
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1469-7610.1985.tb01635.x/abstract

Results: Results indicated that hypnotherapy was significantly effective over 6 months in decreasing nocturnal enuresis, compared with both pretreatment baseline enuresis frequency and no-treatment controls.

Notes: The main objective of this study was to provide an adequately controlled experimental and clinical study to assess the efficacy of hypnotherapy in the treatment of nocturnal enuresis. Subjects were 48 nocturnal enuretic boys, aged 8-13 yr. Treatment consisted of six standardized sessions, one hourly session per subject per week.

Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, Volume 26, Issue 1, pages 161-170, January 1985
By: S. D. Edwards, Department of Psychology, University of Zululand, South Africa
H. I. J. Vander Spuvy, Department of Psychiatry, McMaster University, Ontario, Canada

Study 3: Hypnotherapy and Refractory Nocturnal Enuresis – Boys Aged 8 to 16
Hypnotherapy in the treatment of refractory nocturnal enuresis.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14983195

Results: At follow-up after three months and one year, nine out of 12 patients had respectively 6-7/7, and 7/7 dry nights per week. Three patients had nocturnal enuresis at follow-up; two of them were referred to a pediatric surgeon for their overactive urine bladder and one was referred to his local psychiatric clinic because of ongoing family conflicts.

Notes: Twelve boys, median age 12 years (range 8-16), eight with primary nocturnal enuresis and four with primary nocturnal and diurnal enuresis, reported at referral a median of 0 (range 0-3) dry nights per week They underwent hypnotherapy with a median of six sessions (range 2-8), followed by median one month with self-hypnosis exercises. Hypnotherapy had lasting effects for boys with chronic and complex forms of nocturnal enuresis.

Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 2004 Feb 19;124(4):488-91. (Article in Norwegian)
By: T. H. Diseth, I. H. Vandvik, Barne-og ungdomspsykiatrisk seksjon, Barneavdelingen, Rikshospitalet, Oslo

Hypnosis and Asthma


I hope that this review is useful for those in the medical profession that have not considered Hypnosis as a form of treatment for asthmatic patients as yet. It can be highly effective for some patients and the self hypnosis skills learned can be used to manage their emotional state in many other areas of their lives also.

As always I look forward to your feedback, comments, thoughts and opinions.

Asthma Full

Study 1: Hypnosis Superior to Breathing Exercises for Improving Asthma
Hypnosis for Asthma – A Controlled Trial
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1912142/pdf/brmedj02105-0025.pdf

Results: Results were judged by analyses based on the daily “score” of wheezing recorded in patients’ diaries, by the number of times bronchodilators were used, and by independent clinical assessors. The hypnosis group had improved by 59% compared to a 43% improvement among those who had only been taught the breathing exercises. The average number of times a bronchodilator was used diminished more in the hypnosis group than the control group.

Notes: Two hundred and fifty-two participants aged 10 to 60 (with paroxysmal attacks of wheezing or tight chest capable of relief by bronchodilators) were broken into two groups. One hundred and twenty-seven were given monthly hypnosis sessions for a year and taught to practice self-hypnosis every day and 125 (the control group) were taught a series of breathing exercises designed to bring on deep relaxation. When they were independently assessed at the end of the trial there was a statistically significant difference between the two groups. For the hypnosis group, an eye-thumb fixation induction was used. Suggestions were then given that, by daily self-hypnosis, a state of easing of tension would occur, and – as a result – breathing would become and remain free.

Br Med J 1968;4:71-76 (12 October), A Report to the Research Committee of the British Tuberculosis Association
By: Those participating in the field-work were Drs. Crocket, Davies, Kalnowski, MacDonald, Maher-Loughnan, McAllen, Morrison Smith, Bria Shaw, and Stewart. The investigation was coordinated by Dr. G. P. Maher-Loughnan at Colindale Hospital, London.

Study 2: Review of Studies Concludes that Hypnosis Helps Asthma Generally and Especially in Children
Hypnosis and Asthma: Critical Review
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10724294

Results: This report concluded that studies conducted to date have consistently demonstrated an effect of hypnosis with asthma. Existing data suggest that hypnosis efficacy is enhanced in subjects who are susceptible to the treatment modality (hypnosis), with experienced investigators, when administered over several sessions, and when reinforced by patient self-hypnosis. Children in particular appear to respond well to hypnosis as a tool for improving asthma symptoms.

Notes: This report analyzed numerous studies that were conducted on the effect of hypnosis on asthmatic patients.
Journal of Asthma, Volume 37, Issue 1 February 2000, pages 1-15
By: R. M. Hackman, J. S. Stern, M. E. Gershwin, University of California

Study 3: Review of Studies – Hypnosis Can Help Asthma Symptoms and Helps Manage Emotional States the Exacerbate Airway ObstructionEvidence-Based Hypnotherapy for Asthma: A Critical Review
http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/00207140601177947?journalCode=nhyp20

Results: This review concludes that hypnosis is possibly efficacious for treatment of asthma symptom severity and illness-related behaviors and is efficacious for managing emotional states that exacerbate airway obstruction. Hypnosis is also possibly efficacious for decreasing airway obstruction and stabilizing airway hyper-responsiveness in some individuals.

Notes: This paper reviewed evidence primarily from controlled outcome studies on hypnosis for asthma.

International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis 2007 April.55(2)220-49
By: Daniel Brown, Ph.D., Harvard Medical School

Study 4: Hypnosis Reduces Asthmatics’ Hospital Stays, Drug Side Effects and Need for Drugs; also Improves Condition Generally
Chronic Asthma and Improvement with Relaxation Induced by Hypnotherapy
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1291881/pdf/jrsocmed00155-0023.pdf

Results: Sixteen chronic asthmatic patients inadequately controlled by drugs had, after one year of hypnotherapy, a drop – as a group – in hospital admissions from 44 in the year before starting hypnotherapy to 13 in the year after. Duration of hospital stay was reduced for 13 of the patients by hundreds of days; prednisolone was able to be withdrawn in 6 patients, reduced in 8 patients and increased in none. Adverse side effects of drugs were reduced. 62% of the patients reported improvement in their condition.

Notes: This study followed 16 asthmatics whose condition was not properly controlled by drugs. They were given hypnosis sessions at Southport General Infirmary in England. Instruction in self-hypnosis was given to induce relaxation daily for 5 to 15 minutes; if this was difficult for the participant, a tape recording was made to induce hypnosis. The asthmatics were told to use self-hypnosis/hypnosis at times of mild to moderate wheezing either alone or after use of an inhaler – but never in the event of a severe asthmatic attack.

J R Soc Med. 1988 Dec; 81(12) 701-4
By: J. B. Morrison, MD BSc Southport General Infirmary, Southport, Merseyside

Study 5: Hypnosis Helps Exercise-Induced Asthma
Hypnosis for Exercise-Induced Asthma
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6803633

Results: Exercising after hypnosis resulted in only a 15.9% decrease in forced expiratory volume (FEV1 – volume of air that can be forced out taking a deep breath for one second, an important measure of pulmonary function) compared with a larger 31.8% decrease on the control days when hypnosis was not used prior to exercise (p less than 0.001). Pretreatment with cromolyn along with hypnosis resulted in a 7.6% decrease in FEV1. The study concludes that hypnosis can alter the magnitude of a pathophysiologic process, namely, the bronchospasm after exercise in patients with asthma.

Notes: This study assessed the efficacy of hypnosis in helping exercise-induced asthma (EIA) in 10 stable asthmatics. The subjects ran on a treadmill while mouth breathing for 6 min on 5 different days. Pulmonary mechanics were measured before and after each challenge. Two control exercise challenges resulted in a reproducible decrease in forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1). On 2 other days, saline or cromolyn by nebulization was given in a double-blind manner with the suggestion that these agents would prevent EIA.

Am Rev Respir Dis. 1982 Apr;125(4):392-5
By: Z. Ben-Zvi, W. A. Spohn, S. H. Young, M. Kattan

Study 6: Hypnosis Can Help Mild to Moderate Asthma Symptoms
Improvement in Bronchial Hyper-Responsiveness in Patient with Moderate Asthma after Treatment with a Hypnotic Technique: A Randomised Controlled Trial
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1341848/

Results: The 12 participants with asthma who responded well to hypnosis improved their bronchial hyper-responsiveness (as measured by the methacholine challenge test) by 74.9%. In addition to this, symptoms improved by 41% and as a group they reduced their use of bronchodilators by 26%. In contrast the 17 patient who formed the control group and 10 who were not that hypnotizable had no change. This study concluded that hypnosis was a very effective technique for asthmatics who were moderately to highly hypnotizable. While this technique does not eliminate bronchial hyper-responsiveness, it does provide a clinically useful and nontoxic adjuvant to drug treatment that might benefit about half of the asthmatic population. In subjective terms, the perception of control over the degree of bronchospasm, accompanied by diminished anxiety, often results in an enhanced feeling of health and confidence.

Notes: 39 adults who had mild to moderate asthma were graded on their hypnotizability. 12 who were moderately to highly hypnotizable and 10 who were much less hypnotizable were then enrolled in a 6 week hypnotherapy program. The purpose of the inhaled bronchial challenge test using methacholine is to determine how responsive (or irritable) airways are and to determine the severity of any asthma; in the test, one inhales a mist that contains different concentrations of methacholine. The hypnotic technique used in this study started with an introductory discussion, which combined an outline of the treatment procedures, a general description of hypnosis, and a hypnotic induction. This was followed by suggestions of progressive relaxation, ego enhancement, and a method of self hypnosis. The remaining five sessions began with a similar but shortened induction, followed by a progression of guided imageries. By the final two sessions symptoms of asthma could be rapidly produced and immediately resolved under the subject’s own control. Although hypnotherapy is unlikely to have adverse effects, successful treatment might alter the patient’s appreciation of the severity of the airways obstruction, leading to a delay in seeking appropriate emergency treatment. In the treatment group, care was taken to minimize this possibility by suggestions given during hypnosis of increased awareness of symptoms of asthma, attention to the need for appropriate action, and the avoidance of symptom denial.

Br Med J (Clin Res Ed). 1986 Nov 1;293(6555): 1129-32
By: T. C. Ewer, D. E. Stewart, Dept. of Respiratory Medicine and Psychological Medicine, Princess Margaret Hospital, Christchurch, New Zealand

Study 7: Hypnosis Helps Children with Asthma
Hypnotherapy in the treatment of bronchial asthma
http://www.researchgate.net/publication/22018848_Hypnotherapy_in_the_treatment_of_bronchial_asthma

Results: The average improvement for all subjects using hypnosis was greater than 50% above the baseline measurement as documented by spirometry, monitored dyspnea, wheezing and subjective ratings by the subjects. It is suggested that hypnotherapy may be an important tool in ameliorating asthma, improving ventilatory capacity and promoting relaxation without recourse to pharmacologic agents. One explanation offered is that hypnosis affects an automic response, thereby diminishing bronchospasm.

Notes: The efficacy of hypnotherapy in aborting acute asthmatic attacks was studied in 17 children ranging in age from six to 17. All had as their primary diagnosis bronchial asthma. Prior to hypnotic induction pulmonary function was assessed, then monitored in the immediate post hypnotic period and at two intervals thereafter.

Annals of Allergy 07/1975; 34(6):356-62
By: G. M. Aronoff, S. Aronoff, L. W. Peck

Hypnosis and Anti-Aging


stress_ball-300x300newV3

This is an interesting topic not just from a hypnosis perspective but also from a nutritional stand point also. My business is about mind-body health and I regularly work with clients to whom I teach the importance of good nutrition and positive mindset. The combination of what goes into and out of our minds is as important as the food we put into our bodies on a daily basis, and these two key areas can have a hugely negative or positive effect on our ability to cope with stress and the effects that stress hormones can have on our skin and our internal systems.

As always I will leave you to read and make your own conclusion based on the findings below.

Study 1: Self-Hypnosis Can Lower Stress-Related Hormones and Increase Anti-Aging Hormone
Stress Reducing Regulative Effects of Integrated Mental Training With Self-Hypnosis on the Secretion of Dehydroepiandrosterone Sulfate (DHEA-S) and Cortisol in Plasma: A Pilot Study
http://www.foundationforpositivementalhealth.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/04/contemporary-hypnosis-stress-reducing-DHEA-2006.pdf

Results: At the end of the study it was shown that the hypnosis group had increased their DHEA-S levels by 16% and reduced their cortisol levels by 12.3% when compared to the control group. It was also noted that those in the hypnosis group now had DHEA-S levels equivalent to someone who was 5 to 10 years younger. The authors conclude that frequent application of a self-hypnosis program several days a week was successful in changing the adrenal secretion of DHEA-S and cortisol – and can have a beneficial effect on stress reduction, emotional stability, performance and health outcomes.

Notes: This study looked at whether or not self-hypnosis could be used to lower the stress-related hormone cortisol and raise the anti-aging hormone dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S). Twelve healthy subjects were recruited and randomly assigned to a control and a self-hypnosis group. Those in the self-hypnosis group were brought together and taught self-hypnosis and mental training to reduce cortisol levels and increase DHEA-S. They were then asked to integrate these techniques into their daily life for the next six-months. The study authors note that: (a) the most important and quantitative dominating stress hormone in the body is the adrenal hormone cortisol; (b) DHEA-S has been considered as a marker for biological aging; (c) falling concentrations of DHEA-S have been observed in both mental and psychological stress and physical illness; (d) low concentrations of DHEA-S in blood have been correlated with many age-related diseases; (e) increased plasma DHEA-S has been connected with a reduction in age-related diseases and alleviated chronic stress-load. Participants in the self-hypnosis group were taught basic relaxation and self-hypnosis techniques.

Contemporary Hypnosis, May 2006, Vol. 23(3):101-11024
By: Johansson B, Uneståhl LE. 1 Scandinavian International University, Sweden, 2 Örebro University, Sweden

Hypnosis and Alzheimer’s Disease/Dementia


dementia

incidence-of-alzheimers

I have seen first hand the effects of dementia on my grandmother, and it was horrendous to see the person I knew and loved fade away. In the last few months of her life, the occasions when she recognised me where less and less frequent and it was such a joy when the light was flicked back on and recognition of who I was flooded across her face. It was wonderful for both of us and in those moments she knew what was happening to her and she was completely lucid and aware, despite the tinge of sadness we made the most of these moments when I visited her. I used hypnosis with her to focus her on the many fun memories she had and also to help bring her back out of her delusions and sometimes, these delusions were upsetting for her, so I used hypnosis to distract and re-focus her attention onto positive, happy memories.

This is such a cruel disease that robs people of their identity, personality and soul and is equally traumatic for their families as they watch them fade away and much more research is needed to enable us to provide better treatment and care for those diagnosed.

Dementia-facts

Study 1: Hypnosis Can Improve Seven Aspects of Quality of Life for Individuals with Dementia
Alternative Approaches to Supporting Individuals With Dementia: Enhancing Quality of Life Through Hypnosis
http://dementiatherapyspecialists.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/08/Alzheimers-Care-Today-article.pdf

Results: This pilot study explored the use of hypnosis to influence 7 aspects of quality of life in individuals with dementia: concentration, relaxation, motivation, activities of daily living, immediate memory, memory of significant events, and socialization. The results indicate that hypnosis has a beneficial impact on quality of life on both a short-term and long-term basis. Unlike the other study participants, the participants in the hypnosis group showed improvement in all 7 items – some of which were maintained over a period of time, such as 21 months or more.

The study authors hypothesize that perhaps an individual with dementia is aware of his or her gradual loss of abilities. That awareness leads to increased levels of anxiety and depression – which are known to involve active cognitive processing. Because the individual’s limited cognitive resources are being used up by anxiety and depression, even greater loss of memory, motivation and ability takes place. The authors further hypothesize that hypnosis may decrease an individual with dementia’s anxiety and depression (through positive suggestion and relaxation), which – in turn – may free up otherwise engaged resources so they are available for the individual to use to successfully accomplish cognitive tasks.

Notes: Eighteen participants were recruited from 2 care homes and were randomly allocated into 1 of 3 groups, the hypnosis group (HG), the discussion group (DG), and the treatment-as-usual group (TG). The HG received weekly individual sessions of hypnosis carried out in their single-occupancy bedrooms at their residential or nursing home. Each session lasted approximately 1 hour. Thus, over the 9-month period each HG participant received a total of 36 hours of hypnosis in 36 sessions. Prior to the first hypnosis session, each participant received 1-hour consultation and interview to customize the terminology used during the hypnosis sessions. This ensured that the language used was familiar and personalized for each participant and to ensure comprehension of suggestions that were to be used.

Participants were also introduced to the process of progressive muscle relaxation. Participants were induced into hypnosis in 3 phases:

(i) eye closure

(ii) progressive muscle relaxation, starting at the scalp and moving progressively down toward the feet

(iii) a permissive induction. Permissive inductions “ask” each participant to allow oneself to become more relaxed. After deepening, the HG participants were given direct suggestions relating to the 7 items described earlier, along with additional “CRC” suggestions (Calmness, Relaxation, and Confidence).

health-alzheimers

Examples of the statements are provided below.

  • At the end of this session, and between now and the next time I see you, you will feel more relaxed and at ease, more motivated to do the things you want to do.
  • You will have clarity of thought; you will be able to concentrate for longer periods of time.
  • You will have fewer concerns and less feelings of anxiousness.
  • Spending time with others will have meaning and you will want to spend time chatting with others.

For each of the 7 items, all participants were rated on a 7-point scale, assessed once at the start of the study period and then at weekly intervals.

Alzheimer’s Care Today 2007; 8(4):321-331
By: Simon Duff, Ph.D., is a chartered forensic psychologist and a trained hypnotherapist, working at the Division of Clinical Psychology, University of Liverpool, and the Mersey Forensic Psychology Service, Liverpool, United Kingdom. Daniel Nightingale, Ph.D., was first trained in social work, then as a registered nurse in learning disabilities before completing a doctorate in both learning disabilities and transitional shock. He is a trained hypnotherapist and head of dementia services at Southern Cross Healthcare, The Alton Centre, Northampton, United Kingdom.

The Positive Physical and Psychological Effects of ProArgi9 Plus: L-Arginine and Nitric Oxide


Proargi9+     Enhance Your Health With Synergy

We’ve known about the health benefits of nitric oxide for a long time, even before scientists were aware of its presence in the human body. Nitroglycerin, a drug that works on nitric oxide pathways, was adopted as a medical therapy for angina and high blood pressure in the 1880s, yet another century passed before we really understood how and why it worked.

The discovery of nitric oxide and its biological activities was so astounding that the 1998 Nobel Prize was awarded to the three pharmacologists who identified and furthered our understanding of this dynamic molecule and turned our understanding of the cause of cardiovascular disease upside down. Nitric Oxide performs a number of different tasks and has numerous benefits and I also want to explain how you can increase its production to improve numerous aspects of your own health.

Nitric Oxide’s Effects and Benefits
Nitric oxide is a key signalling molecule throughout the human body, without it we would die. It is produced by the endothelial cells lining the arteries, it penetrates the underlying smooth muscles and acts as a potent vasodilator that relaxes the arteries. Therefore, nitric oxide plays a critical role in blood pressure and overall circulation. It also keeps the endothelium in shape by curbing inflammation and oxidative stress.

Unfortunately, atherosclerosis, the underlying cause of heart disease and other vascular disorders, is characterised by endothelial dysfunction and a limited capacity to produce nitric oxide. It’s a vicious cycle. Diseased arteries can’t generate enough protective nitric oxide, and low nitric oxide levels set the stage for further damage, hypertension, and increased risk of cardiac events.

This explains why nitroglycerin is such an effective therapy for angina. It triggers nitric oxide production, which dilates narrowed coronary arteries, improving circulation and delivering much-needed oxygen to the heart muscle. Restoring nitric oxide availability also lowers blood pressure and helps treat erectile dysfunction. In fact, the popular erectile dysfunction drugs Viagra, Cialis, and Levitra work on nitric oxide pathways to increase blood flow to the penis and substantially improve erections.

How Nitric Oxide Helps
Additionally, this essential compound is generated in the brain, where it’s involved in neurotransmission. That’s why nitric oxide benefits also include protection against dementia and other neurodegenerative disorders. Nitric oxide is synthesised in the white blood cells as well and is used as a weapon against bacteria, fungi, parasites, and aberrant cancer cells.

In the gastrointestinal tract, it relaxes smooth muscle cells and helps regulate intestinal peristalsis and the secretion of mucus and gastric acid. Nitric oxide is also involved in insulin signalling, bone remodelling, respiratory function, ATP (energy) utilisation, and mitochondrial biogenesis, or the creation of new cellular “energy factories.” Since there are so many benefits of nitric oxide, it makes sense for all of us to boost our production of this essential compound.

Original source: http://www.drwhitaker.com/boost-nitric-oxide-levels-to-improve-health/

Goodbye Heart Disease, Diabetes and Strokes

The nitric oxide derived from L-Arginine is both directly and indirectly implicated in practically every cellular response and health condition imaginable, from the cardiovascular system to the immune system, and hormone function to nerve function. Although this is not an exhaustive list of possible applications for this amino acid, the following are the primary scientifically backed reasons that anyone, even healthy people, must consider adding L-Arginine to their health and wellness routine.

From a personal perspective, I have been taking ProArgi9 Plus for almost three years now and  began taking it as I had recently been diagnosed with a minor heart condition. Now almost three years on I hardly notice it at all, whereas previously it was very evident at numerous points through the day as my heart randomly tried to escape through my chest and caused shortness of breath and dizziness.

Also my father, who is now 70, has had heart trouble and been prescribed Warfarin etc and Statins. After about 12 months consistently taking ProArgi9 Plus he no longer requires Warfarin and has stopped taking the Statins. In combination with smaller food portions, healthier food, regular exercise of 20-30 minutes max, 5 times per week he is in better shape than he has been in quite a few years.

Proargi9+ & PDR

I am optimistic that the GMC will some day recognise the validity and efficacy of ProArgi9 Plus as has the AMA, because in the USA ProArgi9 Plus is the only non-pharmaceutical health supplement to be included in the Physicians Desk Reference (PDR) and GP’s there can prescribe it to their patients

  1. ProArgi9 Plus is one thousand times more powerful than any naturally occurring antioxidant in the body. L-Arginine`s antioxidant properties support various body systems and may protect against heart disease, stroke, cancer, and diabetes, as well as slowing premature ageing. [1, 2 ]
  2. ProArgi9 Plus offers wide-ranging cardiovascular support, including controlling blood pressure [3, 4] and plaque formation. Nitric oxide keeps arteries relaxed and pliable for normal blood pressure, preventing hypertension and angina. [5]
  3. ProArgi9 Plus enhances memory, [6] particularly long-term memory, and may help to reverse the effects of dementia and Alzheimer’s disease. [7]
  4. ProArgi9 Plus boosts human growth hormone (HGH) production, which has anti-ageing properties. [8]
  5. ProArgi9 Plus enhances communication of messenger cells between nerves and the brain. [9]
  6. ProArgi9 Plus may help improve immune function [10] and fight bacterial infections. [11]
  7. ProArgi9 Plus may help in the treatment and prevention of diabetes since many disease complications, including poor circulation and blindness, are vascular in nature. L-Arginine is also found to regulate insulin secretion in the pancreas. [12,13]
  8. ProArgi9 Plus may inhibit the division and proliferation of cancer cells. [14,15]
  9. ProArgi9 Plus helps with cholesterol control by lowering serum and LDL cholesterol levels. [16]
  10. ProArgi9 Plus enhances male sexual performance by treating vascular erectile dysfunction (ED). [17]
  11. ProArgi9 Plus anticoagulant abilities reduce clotting to lower heart attack and stroke risk. [18]
  12. ProArgi9 Plus reduces pregnancy-related hypertension, a risk factor for both the expecting mother and the unborn child. [19]
  13. ProArgi9 Plus is useful in the treatment of asthma by opening pulmonary pathways for easier breathing and the treatment of lung disorders. [20, 21]
  14. ProArgi9 Plus relaxes hypertonic sphincter muscles, preventing and healing haemorrhoids. [22]
  15. ProArgi9 Plus boosts lean muscle mass and preserves bone density by encouraging HGH production, [23] which also leads to a reduction in fatty tissue. Because of these properties, it may be useful in weight management and strength training.
  16. ProArgi9 Plus can help offset cardiovascular and lung damage caused by tobacco use,[24] since nitric oxide levels in smokers are less than half of those found in nonsmokers. [25]
  17. ProArgi9 Plus helps to accelerate wound healing [26] and post-surgery recovery. [27] Research has shown it is useful in treating burn wounds [28] and stimulates wound healing in the elderly. [29]
  18. ProArgi9 Plus may be useful in enhancing athletic performance due to its ability to boost exercise tolerance, [30] its beneficial effect on the lungs, and its effect on HGH levels. Which helps with building lean muscle tissue.
  19. ProArgi9 Plus may be used to improve the function of the prostate. [31]
  20. ProArgi9 Plus may prevent and possibly reverse the effects of osteoporosis by positively affecting bone mass. [32]
  21. ProArgi9 Plus has been used in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome [33} and to reduce the occurrence of ulcers, particularly stress-related, without affecting gastric acid production. [34,35]
  22. ProArgi9 Plus may improve renal function and slow the progression of renal disease and age-related chronic renal failure. [36,37] Arginine`s protective effect on the kidneys may also benefit those with diabetes.

Source References:

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  2. Kumar CA, Das UN. Lipid peroxides, antioxidants and nitric oxide in patients with pre-eclampsia and essential hypertension. Med Sci-Monitor. 2000 Sep-Oct; 6(5):901-7.
  3. Brown, M.D., Dengel, D.R., Supiano, M.A. Nitric Oxide Biomarkers are Associated with the Blood Pressure-Lowering Effects of Dietary Sodium Restriction in Older Hypertensives. Circulation (Abstract I). 1997; 96:I-539.
  4. Rosano, G.M.C., Tanina, G., Cerquetani, E., Leonardo, F., Pelliccia, F., Bonfigli, B., and Chierchia, F.L. L-arginine Improves Endothelial Function in Newly Diagnosed Hypertensives. The Journal of the American College of Cardiology (Supplement A). 1998; 31:262a
  5. Moncada, F., Palmer, R.M.J., Higgs, E.A. The Discovery of Nitric Oxide as the Endogenous Nitro vasodilator. Hypertension. 1988; 12:365-72.
  6. Pautler EL. The possible role and treatment of deficient microcirculation regulation in age-associated memory impairment. Med Hypotheses. 1994 Jun; 42(6):363-6.
  7. Tarkowski E, et al. Intrathecal release of nitric oxide in Alzheimer’s disease and vascular dementia. Dement Geriatric Cogn Disord. 2000 Nov-Dec; 11(6):322-6.
  8. Ghigo E, Arvat E, Gianotti L, et al. Hypothalamic growth hormone-insulin-like growth facto-1 axis across the human life span. J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab.2000; 13 Suppl 6:1493-502.
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  10. Efron D, Barbul A. Role of arginine in immuno-nutrition. J Gastroentol. 2000; 35 Suppl 12:20-3..
  11. Korting GE, Smith SD, Wheeler MA, Weiss RM, Foster HE. A randomized double-blind study of oral L-arginine for treatment of interstitial cystitis. J Urol. 1999 Feb; 161(2):558-65.
  12. Piatti PM, Monti LD, Valsecchi G, et al. Long term oral L-arginine administration improves peripheral and hepatic insulin sensitivity in type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2001 May; 24(5):875-80.
  13. Mohan IK, Cas UN. Effects of L-arginine-nitric oxide system on chemical induced diabetes mellitus. Free Radic Biol Med. 1998 Nov 1; 25(7):757-65.
  14. Heys SD, et al. Dietary supplementation with L-arginine: Modulation of tumour infiltrating lymphocytes in patients with colorectal cancer. Br J Surg. 1997 Feb; 84(2):238-41.
  15. Brittenden J, et al. Dietary supplementation with L-arginine in patients with breast cancer (> 4cm.) receiving multi-modality treatment: report of a feasibility study. Br J Cancer. 1994 May; 69(5):918-21.
  16. Khedara A, Kawai Y Kayashita J Kato N. Feeding rats the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, L-N(omega) nitroarginine, elevates serum triglycerides and cholesterol and lowers hepatic fatty acid oxidation. J Nutr. 1996 Oct; 126(10):2563-7.
  17. Chen J, Wollman Y, Chernichovsky T, et al. Effect of high dose nitric oxide donor L-arginine in men with organic erectile dysfunction. BJU Int. 1999 Feb; 83(3):269-73.
  18. Wolf A, et al. Dietary L-arginine supplementation normalises platelet aggregation in hypercholesterolemic humans. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1997 Mar 1; 29(3):479.
  19. Podjarny, E., et al. Pregnancy-induced hypertension in rats with adriamycin nephropathy is associated with inadequate production of nitric oxide. Hypertension. 1997; 29:986-991.
  20. De Gouw HW, Verbruggen MB, Twiss IM, Sterk PJ. Effect of oral L-arginine on airway hyper-responsiveness to histamine in asthma. Thorax. 1999 Nov; 54(11):1033-5.
  21. De Gouw HW, Marshall-Partridge SJ, et al. Role of nitric oxide in the airway response to exercise in healthy and asthmatic subjects. J Appl Physiol. 2001 Feb; 90(2):586-92.
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  23. Stevens BR, Godfrey MD, Kaminski TW, Braith RW. High intensity dynamic human muscle performance enhanced by a metabolic intervention. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2000 Dec; 32(12):2102-8.
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