ICARUS Online in the News


At the beginning of the week I was interviewed by a journalist from my local paper the Press and Jornal and talked about the work that me and David Bellamy are doing to help bring change to the military charities sector and also to speed up access to treatment for veterans, uniformed services & their immediate families.

Have a read and please share.

Thanks

https://www.pressandjournal.co.uk/fp/news/aberdeenshire/1438690/turriff-based-ex-marine-sets-up-new-helpline-for-former-military-personnel/

Hypnosis for Common Medical Issues


INTRODUCTION

I have been researching and reading through a plethora of websites, articles, journals and papers looking for studies and research into the use of hypnosis for common medical issues, because despite hypnosis becoming more popular as a treatment methodology, there are still many misconceptions as to its efficacy. Thankfully more and more studies show that hypnosis helps patients with many common medical problems, and interest in hypnotherapy for medical issues is greater than ever before.

The use of hypnosis for medical issues is not exactly new. Back in 1958, the American Medical Association (AMA) recognised that hypnosis is a useful technique in the treatment of certain illnesses and a valid medical procedure.[1] In fact, the Wall Street Journal reported in 2003 that hypnosis “is increasingly being employed in mainstream medicine”[2] and in 2012 that “scientific evidence is mounting that hypnosis can be effective in a variety of medical situations.”[3]

A 2016 study done by researchers at Stanford University School of Medicine confirms that hypnosis is indeed a real thing. The study was conducted with functional magnetic resonance imaging, a scanning method that measures blood flow in the brain. It found changes in activity in brain areas of hypnotized persons that are thought to be involved in focused attention, the monitoring and control of the body’s functioning, and the awareness and evaluation of a person’s internal and external environments.[4]
Yet, hypnosis is still underutilized for medical issues. In 2016, Pierre-Yves Rodondi, a doctor at the University Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine at the Lausanne University Hospital in Lausanne, Switzerland, said: “If hypnosis were a medication it would already be in all hospitals, but it is an approach, and thus it must overcome cultural barriers.”[5]

Originating source:

Compiled and written for the American Hypnosis Association by Bruce Bonnett:

  • Senior Staff Instructor at HMI College of Hypnotherapy

https://hypnosis.edu/medical/

References

  1. University of Maryland Medical Center (UMMC) > What is Hypnotherapy?
  2. Altered States: Hypnosis In Mainstream Medicine
  3. Medical Hypnosis: You Are Getting Very Healthy
  4. Study Identifies Brain Areas Altered During Hypnotic Trances and
  5. Is Hypnosis All in Your Head? Brain Scans Suggest Otherwise
  6. Impact Journalism Day: Healing Powers of Hypnosis Promoted by Swiss and
  7. Switzerland Hospital Promotes the Healing Powers of Hypnosis

Most Common Issues

Here are brief descriptions of just some of the top studies done at universities and hospitals that show how hypnosis helps with some of the most common issues that hypnotherapists address. (See References if you are interested in more details about any of these studies).


1: Smoking Cessation

In 2007, researchers from North Shore Medical Center in Salem, Massachusetts compared 67 people who wanted to quit smoking and were divided into 4 groups based on their method of smoking cessation treatment: (a) hypnotherapy; (b) nicotine replacement therapy; (c) nicotine replacement therapy plus hypnotherapy; and (d) quitting “cold turkey.” They concluded that a person may be more likely to quit smoking through the use of hypnotherapy than by using other smoking cessation methods. This study shows that smokers who participated in one hypnotherapy session were more likely to be nonsmokers after 6 months compared with patients using nicotine replacement therapy alone or patients who quit “cold turkey.”[1]
In 1992, researchers from the University of Iowa statistically analyzed the results of 633 smoking cessation studies involving 71,806 participants. They concluded that hypnosis was the most effective technique used to quit smoking. In fact, they found that a single session of hypnosis is three times more effective than nicotine gum and five times more effective than willpower alone.[2]

In 2004, researchers from Texas A&M University’s Health Science Center studied 21 smokers who had failed in previous unassisted attempts to stop smoking. The participants were given three hypnosis sessions and also a tape recording with a hypnotic induction they could use on their own time. At the end of the program, 17 subjects (81%) reported that they had stopped smoking. A 12-month follow-up revealed that 10 of them (48%) remained smoke-free.[3]

In 2015, researchers from the Faculty of Nursing at the Beni-Suef University in Egypt studied 59 male secondary school students who were smokers. These subjects were taught self-hypnosis for the purpose of quitting smoking. After nine weeks of doing the self-hypnosis, 65.4% of those studied had stopped smoking.[4]

1.1. Hypnotherapy For Smoking Cessation Sees Strong Results

Results: Hospitalised patients who smoke may be more likely to quit smoking through the use of hypnotherapy than patients using other smoking cessation methods. This study shows that smoking patients who participated in one hypnotherapy session were more likely to be nonsmokers at 6 months compared with patients using nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) alone or patients who quit “cold turkey.”

Notes: This study compared the quit rates of 67 smoking patients hospitalized with a cardiopulmonary diagnosis. All patients were approached about smoking cessation and all included in the study were patients who expressed a desire to quit smoking. At discharge, patients were divided into four groups based on their preferred method of smoking cessation treatment: hypnotherapy (n=14), NRT (n=19), NRT and hypnotherapy (n=18), and a group of controls who preferred to quit “cold turkey” (n=16). All patients received self-help brochures. The control group received brief counseling, but other groups received intensive counseling, free supply of NRT and/or a free hypnotherapy session within 7 days of discharge, as well as follow up telephone calls at 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, and 26 weeks after discharge. Patients receiving hypnotherapy also were taught to do self-hypnosis and were given tapes to play at the end of the session.

At 26 weeks after discharge, 50 percent of patients treated with hypnotherapy alone were nonsmokers, compared with 50 percent in the NRT/hypnotherapy group, 25 percent in the control group, and 15.78 percent in the NRT group. Patients admitted with a cardiac diagnosis were more likely to quit smoking at 26 weeks (45.5 percent) than patients admitted with a pulmonary diagnosis (15.63 percent).

The researchers note that hospitalisation is an important opportunity to intervene among patients who smoke.

This study as presented at Chest 2007, the 73rd annual international scientific assembly of the American College of Chest Physicians Oct. 24, 2007 By: Faysal Hasan, MD, FCCP, North Shore Medical Center, Salem, MA Dr. Hasan and colleagues from North Shore Medical Center and Massachusetts General Hospital
http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2007/10/071022124741.htm

1.2. Smoking Cessation A Meta-Analytic Comparison of the Effectiveness of Smoking Cessation Methods

Results: They found that among of all of the techniques used, hypnosis was the most effective. They found that a single session of hypnosis was three times more effective than the nicotine gum and five times more effective then willpower alone (willpower was 6%; nicotine gum was 10% and a single hypnosis session was 30%).

Notes: The Institute of Actuaries (in the US) commissioned the largest study ever done on smoking cessation. It statistically analyzed the results of 633 smoking cessation studies involving 71,806 participants.
Journal of Applied Psychology. Vol 77(4), Aug 1992, 554-561
By: C. Viswesvaran, F. L. Schmidt, Department of Management and Organizations, University of Iowa, Iowa City 52242
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1387394
http://psycnet.apa.org/journals/apl/77/4/554/

1.3. Clinical Hypnosis for Smoking Cessation: Preliminary Results of a Three-Session Intervention

Results: At the end of the program 17 subjects (81%) reported that they had stopped smoking. A 12-month follow-up revealed that 10 of them (48%) remained smoke-free.

Notes: Twenty-one smokers who were referred to this study by their physicians for medical reasons, received three smoking cessation hypnosis sessions. All patients reported having failed in previous unassisted attempts to stop smoking. The clinical-treatment protocol included three sessions. The first session was the initial consultation and did not include a hypnotic induction. Sessions 2 and 3 involved individually adapted hypnotic suggestions and an individual therapeutic relationship with each patient. Each patient was also provided with a cassette tape recording of a hypnotic induction with direct suggestions for relaxation and a feeling of comfort. The patients were seen biweekly for treatment.

Hypnotic Suggestions: Absorption in relaxing imagery, a commitment to stop smoking, decreased craving for nicotine, posthypnotic suggestions, practice of self-hypnosis, and to visualize the positive benefits of smoking cessation. The induction was standardized, but the specific imagery for relaxation and the positive benefits for smoking cessation were individualized based upon the patient’s preference regarding such imagery.

Int J Clin Exp Hypn. 2004 , Jan;52(1):73-81

By: G. R. Elkins, M. H. Rajab, Texas A&M University’s Health Science Center
http://bscw.rediris.es/pub/bscw.cgi/d4431440/Elkins-Clinical_hypnosis_smoking_cessation.pdf
http://blog.healthjourneys.com/smoking-cessation/clinical-hypnosis-for-smoking-cessation-preliminary-results-of-a-three-session-intervention.html

1.4. Effect of Hypnotherapy on Smoking Cessation Among Secondary School Students (2015)

Background: Hypnotherapy is widely promoted as a method for aiding smoking cessation. It is proposed to act on underlying impulses to weaken the desire to smoke or strengthen the will to stop. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of hypnotherapy on smoking cessation among secondary school students.

Method: A random sample of 59 male smokers was selected from two governmental secondary schools. Design: A quasi- experimental design was used. Tools: Data were collected using; A- an Interview Questionnaire included; I- smoking assessment tool to determine the smoking rate among males students. II-Characteristics of studied students regarding smoking pattern. III- Smoking Cessation Questionnaire. B- Wisconsin smoking withdrawal scale. The hypnotherapy was implemented after assessing the rate of male smokers, the researchers trained the students in practicing self hypnosis, and asked them to practice it at home and to document the frequency of daily smoked packs for nine weeks.

Results: The present study findings indicated that the rate of male smokers among secondary school students in Beni-Suef city was 52.4%, about two third of studied students (65.4%) stopped smoking after nine weeks of practicing hypnosis and the percentage of smoked packs of cigarettes/ day decreased after implementing the program.

Conclusion: The present study findings showed that hypnotherapy has a therapeutic effectiveness in achieving a high rate of smoking cessation among secondary school students. There was a highly significant difference in total score of smoking withdrawal index before and after intervention. Recommendation: Community and school education programs should include sessions on quitting smoking, implementing school-based interventions in combination with anti-tobacco mass media campaigns.


2. Weight Loss

In 1986, researchers from the University of British Columbia studied 60 overweight women, which were divided into a group who received hypnosis and another group who did not receive hypnosis. They found that those women who received hypnosis lost an average of 17 pounds while the women who did not receive hypnosis lost an average of 0.5 pounds.[1]

In 1985, researchers from the University of Northern Colorado Department of Psychology studied 109 subjects. All were given behavioural management to lose weight, but only half were also given hypnosis. Both groups had lost a significant amount of weight at the end of the 9-week program. When followed-up at 8 months and 2 years, the group that also received hypnosis had lost even more weight, while the group that had not received hypnosis remained unchanged.[2]

In 1996, researchers from the University of Connecticut Department of Psychology analyzed the data from a number of studies that tested the effectiveness of adding hypnosis to cognitive behavioral therapy (“CBT”) for weight loss. They concluded that people who received hypnosis in addition to CBT lost more weight (a mean weight loss of 11.83 pounds compared to 6 pounds). They also found that those who used hypnosis continued to lose weight over time (up to 14.88 pounds) while those not using hypnosis remained at just a 6 pound loss over time.[3]

2.1. Hypnotherapy in Weight Loss Treatment

Results: This study found that those who received hypnosis lost an average of 17 (seventeen) lbs compared to an average of 0.5 lbs in the control group (there was no difference between the hypnosis only and the hypnosis and audiotapes group).

Notes: This study examined how effective hypnosis was in helping women to lose weight. It recruited 60 women who were not dieting or involved in any other program and who were at least 20% overweight. It randomly assigned the women to a control group, to a group that only received hypnosis and to a group that received hypnosis along with audiotapes.

Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology. Vol 54(4), Aug 1986, 489-492
By: G. Cochrane, J. Friesen, University of British Columbia
Noha Ahmed Mohamed, Seham Mohamed ElMwafie
http://psycnet.apa.org/journals/ccp/54/4/489/

2.2. Effectiveness of Hypnosis as an Adjunct to Behavioral Weight Management

Results: When followed-up at 8 months and 2 years, the group that also received hypnosis had lost even more weight, while the group that had not, remained unchanged.

Notes: This study examined the effectiveness of adding hypnosis to a behavioural management program to help people lose weight. It recruited 109 subjects and randomly split them into two groups, one which received only behavioural management and the other which received behavioural management plus hypnosis. Both groups had lost a significant amount of weight at the end of the 9-week program.

J Clin Psychol. 1985 Jan;41(1):35-41
By: D. N. Bolocofsky, D. Spinler, L. Coulthard-Morris, Department of Psychology, University of Northern Colorado, Greeley, Colorado 80639
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/1097-4679(198501)41:1%3C35::AID-JCLP2270410107%3E3.0.CO;2-Z/abstract

2.3. Hypnotic Enhancement of Cognitive-Behavioral Weight Loss Treatments: Another Meta-Reanalysis

Results: This study analyzed the data for a number of studies that examined the effectiveness of combining hypnosis with cognitive behavioural therapy for weight loss. It found that those who received CBT only had a mean weight loss of 6 lbs, while those who received both hypnosis and CBT had a mean weight loss of 11.83 lbs. It further found that the difference between these two groups increased over time (to 6.33 lbs versus 14.88 lbs).

Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 64 (3), 517-519, 1996
By: I. Kirsch, Department of Psychology, University of Connecticut, Storrs 06269-1020, USA
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8698945


3. Sleep Issues

In 1979, researchers from Guy’s Hospital Medical School in London studied 18 patients who had suffered from insomnia for at least 3 months. They concluded that patients slept significantly longer with hypnosis alone than when they received a placebo. Also, significantly more patients had a normal night’s sleep when using self-hypnosis alone than when they received a placebo or Mogadon/Nitrazepam – a benzodiazepine drug.[1]

In 1989, a Ph.D. from the University of Tasmania, Australia studied 45 subjects randomly assigned to one of three groups: hypnotic relaxation; stimulus control; and placebo. The data generated by the study suggested that only hypnosis was effective in helping the subjects go to sleep more quickly.[2]

In 2006, researchers from the State University of New York Upstate Medical University studied 84 children and adolescents with sleep issues (such as insomnia, a delay in sleep onset, nighttime awakenings, and issues like pain that impedes sleep) who did hypnosis sessions and were taught self-hypnosis. 87% of the children reported that hypnosis had helped them either significantly improve or completely resolve their sleep problems.[3]

3.1. Insomnia and Hypnotherapy

Results: Patients slept significantly longer with hypnosis alone than when they received a placebo. Significantly more patients had a normal night’s sleep when on autohypnosis alone than when they received a placebo or Mogadon/Nitrazepam – a benzodiazepine drug. There was a tendency for autohypnosis to reduce the time taken to go to sleep.

Notes: 18 patients were between 29 and 60 years old and had suffered from insomnia for at least 3 months prior to the study. Patients were issued diary cards and every morning they classified their sleep based on: average time to go to sleep, average sleep duration, quality of sleep, and waking state (bright, average or tired). Hypnosis techniques included a simple prolonged relaxation technique, guided imagery so the patient pictured himself in a warm safe place (possibly on vacation), and imagining the patient was in a warm, dark room, feeling at ease and comfortable. Self-hypnosis was taught and patients were told they could give themselves suggestions that would lead to a deep, refreshing sleep, waking up at their usual time in the morning, feeling wide awake.

Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine Volume 72 October 1979.
By: Professor J. A. D. Anderson, E. R. Dalton BSC DipMathStats, Department of Community Medicine, Guy’s Hospital Medical School, London SEL 9RT
M. A. Basker MRCS MRCGP, 95 The Ridgeway, Westcliffon Sea, Essex SSO 8PX

3.2. Hypnotic Relaxation and the Reduction of Sleep Onset Insomnia

Results: Data generated by the study suggested that the particular hypnotic relaxation treatment used was effective in helping subjects go to sleep more quickly. Neither stimulus control nor placebo groups recorded similar improvement.

Notes: A hypnotic relaxation technique was compared to stimulus control and placebo conditions as a means of reducing sleep onset latency (SOL). Forty-five subjects were matched on their baseline SOL as measured through sleep diaries. They were randomly assigned to one of three groups: hypnotic relaxation; stimulus control; and placebo. These groups experienced four weekly sessions of 30-minutes duration with demand effects being controlled through the use of counter-demand instructions.

Int J Psychosom. 1989;36(1-4):64-8
By: Harry E. Stanton, Ph.D., University of Tasmania, Australia
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1437178/pdf/jrsocmed00280-0030.pdf
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2689375

3.3. Hypnosis for Treatment of Insomnia in School-Age Children: A Retrospective Chart Review

Results: By the end of the study 87% of the children reported that hypnosis had helped them either significantly improve or completely resolve their sleep problems. Insomnia was resolved in the majority of the children after one or two hypnosis instruction sessions. Of the 70 patients reporting a delay in sleep onset of more than 30 minutes, 90% reported a reduction in sleep onset time following hypnosis. Of the 21 patients reporting nighttime awakenings more than once a week, 52% reported resolution of the awakenings after hypnosis and 38% reported improvement after hypnosis. 87% of those who had body issues impeding sleep – such as chest pain, habit cough, and headaches – reported improvement or resolution of those issues following hypnosis. Instruction in self-hypnosis appears to help resolve insomnia in children as young as 7 years old.

Notes: A retrospective chart review was performed for 84 children and adolescents with insomnia at SUNY Upstate Medical University Pediatric Pulmonary Center between 1998 and 2005. Patients were offered instruction in self-hypnosis and returned for follow-up after one or more hypnosis sessions. Mean age was 12 years old. The average duration of insomnia prior to hypnosis was 3 years. Information was obtained from the children’s self reports before and after hypnosis. Sessions included demonstration of 2 or 3 self-hypnosis induction techniques, employment of a favorite place imagery and progressive relaxation while in hypnosis to achieve relaxation, and development of imagery intended to resolve the insomnia. If insomnia did not resolve after the first session, patients were offered a second session during which they were taught how to use hypnosis in order to gain insight into potential stressors – including dream analysis.

BMC Pediatrics. 2006, Vol. 6 (23). Published Aug. 16, 2006
By: Ran D. Anbar and Molly P. Slothower, Dept. of Pediatrics, University Hospital, State University of New York Upstate Medical University, Syracuse, NY
https://bmcpediatr.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1471-2431-6-23

 


4. Stress

In 2013, researchers from the Department of Psychology at Lund University in Sweden studied the effect of participants’ use of hypnosis for two weeks (via audio recording). They found the hypnotic intervention had a medium-to-large beneficial effect on the participants’ experience of stress, burnout and wellbeing.[1]

In 2013, researchers from the University of Delhi studied 7 college students pursuing a Ph.D. The study showed that hypnotherapy is an effective intervention strategy to help patients diagnosed with anxiety symptoms.[2]
In 2006, researchers from Yale University School of Medicine studied the stress and anxiety of 76 patients before and after surgery. The 26 patients who received hypnosis were significantly less anxious post-intervention. Moreover, on entrance to the operating rooms, the hypnosis group reported a significant decrease of 56% in their anxiety level. The study authors conclude that hypnosis significantly alleviates preoperative anxiety.[3]

In 1991, a professor at the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee studied 44 introductory psychology who were given 4 sessions of hypnosis for exam stress compared to 50 similar students who did not receive any hypnosis. Those student who received hypnosis showed a decrease in exam anxiety as well as improvements in test achievement.[4]

In 1994, researchers from the University of Tasmania studied 40 music students who experience considerable anxiety when they perform. Results indicate that hypnotherapy is likely to assist musicians in the reduction of their stage fright.[5]

In 1989, researchers studied 56 medical students. Those students who received 9 hypnosis sessions improved significantly in coping with exam stress.[6]

4.1. Hypnotic Tape Intervention Ameliorates Stress: A Randomized Control Study

Results: The results show that, as compared with baseline and wait-list conditions, the hypnotic intervention had a medium-to-large beneficial effect on participants’ experience of stress, burnout, and well-being. Some participants also decreased their use of the coping strategy escape-avoidance post intervention.

Notes: This study (N?=?35) used a randomized control design, and participants were collected from a variety of groups. After evaluating their degree of stress and burnout, coping styles, general well-being, and hypnotizability, participants were matched by stress level and randomly assigned to an intervention or wait-list group. The intervention comprised an audio recording of a hypnotic induction accompanied by suggestions for progressive relaxation, imagery, and anchoring to be used for 2 weeks.

Int J Clin Exp Hypn. 2013 Apr;61(2):125-45
By: E. Cardeña, C. Svensson, F. Hejdström, Department of Psychology, Center for Research on Consciousness and Anomalous Psychology, Lund University, P.O. Box 213 SE-221 00, Lund, Sweden
“Effect of Clinical Hypnotherapy on Anxiety Symptoms”, Delhi Psychiatry Journal Vol. 16, No. 1, April 2013
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23427838

4.2. Effect of Clinical Hypnotherapy on Anxiety Symptoms

Results: Patients in the hypnosis group were significantly less anxious postintervention as compared with patients in the attention-control group and the control group. Moreover, on entrance to the operating rooms, the hypnosis group reported a significant decrease of 56% in their anxiety level whereas the attention-control group reported an increase of 10% in anxiety and the control group reported an increase of 47% in their anxiety. The study authors conclude that hypnosis significantly alleviates preoperative anxiety.

Notes: This study examined the effect of hypnosis on preoperative anxiety. Subjects were randomized into 3 groups, a hypnosis group (n 26) who received suggestions of well-being; an attention-control group (n26) who received attentive listening and support without any specific hypnotic suggestions and a “standard of care” control group (n 24). Anxiety was measured pre- and postintervention as well as on entrance to the operating rooms.

Anesth Analg, 2006, Vol. 102, No 5, pp. 1394-1396

4.3. Hypnosis Reduces Preoperative Anxiety in Adult Patients

Results: Patients in the hypnosis group were significantly less anxious post intervention as compared with patients in the attention-control group and the control group. Moreover, on entrance to the operating rooms, the hypnosis group reported a significant decrease of 56% in their anxiety level whereas the attention-control group reported an increase of 10% in anxiety and the control group reported an increase of 47% in their anxiety. The study authors conclude that hypnosis significantly alleviates preoperative anxiety.

Notes: This study examined the effect of hypnosis on preoperative anxiety. Subjects were randomized into 3 groups, a hypnosis group (n 26) who received suggestions of well-being; an attention-control group (n26) who received attentive listening and support without any specific hypnotic suggestions and a “standard of care” control group (n 24). Anxiety was measured pre- and post intervention as well as on entrance to the operating rooms.

Anesth Analg, 2006, Vol. 102, No 5, pp. 1394-1396
By: H. Saadat, J. Drummond-Lewis, I. Maranets, D. Kaplan, A. Saadat, S. M. Wang, Z. N. Kain, Center for the Advancement of Perioperative Health, Departments of Anesthesiology, Pediatrics, and Child Psychiatry, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, USA
http://bscw.rediris.es/pub/bscw.cgi/d4448193/Saadat-Hypnosis_reduces_preoperative_anxiety_adult_patients.pdf

4.4. Hypnotherapy and Test Anxiety

Two cognitive-behavioral constructs: The effects of hypnosis in reducing test anxiety and improving academic achievement in college students.

Results: There was a decrease in test anxiety and improvements in achievement for the hypnosis group. The treatment gains were maintained at 6-wk follow-up.

Notes: Investigated the effects of cognitive-behavioral hypnosis in reducing test anxiety and improving academic performance. 44 introductory psychology students received 4 sessions of hypnosis and 50 Hawthorne controls received no treatment over the same time period. Subjects’ midterm test grades and scores on the Test Anxiety Inventory were examined.

Australian Journal of Clinical Hypnotherapy and Hypnosis, Vol 12(1), Mar 1991, 25-31
By: Marty Sapp, Professor, Department of Educational Psychology, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee
http://psycnet.apa.org/psycinfo/1992-24581-001

4.5. Reduction of Performance Anxiety in Music Students

Results: Results indicate that hypnotherapy is likely to assist musicians in the reduction of their stage fright.

Notes: Many music students experience considerable anxiety when they perform. The present article describes a two-session hypnotherapeutic approach combining relaxation, positive suggestion, and symbolic success imagery designed to reduce this performance anxiety. The subjects of the study were 40 second- and third-year music students studying at a conservatorium of music who were paired on the basis of their Performance Anxiety Inventory scores. One member of each pair was allocated at random to an experimental group and the other to a control group. Further administrations of the Performance Anxiety Inventory (PAI) took place immediately after conclusion of the two-session treatment and 6 months later. At the time of this follow-up, subjects completed an anecdotal report providing information on their performance over the previous 6 months. Results indicate that the method is likely to assist musicians in the reduction of their stage fright.

Australian Psychologist, Volume 29, Issue 2, 1994
By: Harry E. Stanton, The University of Tasmania
http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/00050069408257335#.UipPQRavszI

4.6. Hypnosis and Medical Student Stress
Coping with examination stress through hypnosis: an experimental study.

Results: The hypnosis group improved significantly in coping with examination stress.

Notes: Fifty-six volunteer medical students participated. The hypnosis and waking groups attended eight group sessions once a week with general ego-strengthening and specific suggestions for study habits, with a ninth session of age progression and mental rehearsal. Subjects in these two groups practiced self-suggestions (in self-hypnosis or waking respectively) daily for the study period of 9 weeks. The control group experienced sessions of passive relaxation induced by light reading for the same period of time.

Am J Clin Hypn. 1989 Jan;31(3):173-80
By: B. M. Palan, S. Chandwani
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2919571


5. IBS (Irritable Bowel Syndrome) / Gastrointestinal Disorders

In 2015, a researcher from the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill reviewed 35 studies on the use of hypnosis for gastrointestinal disorders including irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). The conclusion was that research shows unequivocally that for both adults and children with IBS, hypnosis treatment is highly efficacious in reducing bowel symptoms and can offer lasting and substantial symptom relief for a large proportion of patients who do not respond adequately to usual medical treatment approaches.[1]
In 2003, researchers from the University Hospital of South Manchester and Withington Hospital in the United Kingdom studied 204 patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). They observed that 71% of the patients responded to hypnotherapy, and 81% of those maintained their improvement over time. Hypnotherapy resulted in improvements in patient symptoms, quality of life, anxiety, and amount of medication required.[2]

5.1. Hypnosis Treatment of Gastrointestinal Disorders: A Comprehensive Review of the Empirical Evidence
Abstract

Hypnotherapy has been investigated for 30 years as a treatment for gastrointestinal (GI) disorders. There are presently 35 studies in the published empirical literature, including 17 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that have assessed clinical outcomes of such treatment. This body of research is reviewed comprehensively in this article. Twenty-four of the studies have tested hypnotherapy for adult irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and 5 have focused on IBS or abdominal pain in children. All IBS hypnotherapy studies have reported significant improvement in gastrointestinal symptoms, and 7 out of 10 RCTs in adults and all 3 RCTs in pediatric patient samples found superior outcomes for hypnosis compared to control groups. Collectively this body of research shows unequivocally that for both adults and children with IBS, hypnosis treatment is highly efficacious in reducing bowel symptoms and can offer lasting and substantial symptom relief for a large proportion of patients who do not respond adequately to usual medical treatment approaches. For other GI disorders the evidence is more limited, but preliminary indications of therapeutic potential can be seen in the single randomized controlled trials published to date on hypnotherapy for functional dyspepsia, functional chest pain, and ulcerative colitis. Further controlled hypnotherapy trials in those three disorders should be a high priority. The mechanisms underlying the impact of hypnosis on GI problems are still unclear, but findings from a number of studies suggest that they involve both modulation of gut functioning and changes in the brain’s handling of sensory signals from the GI tract.

Am J Clin Hypn. 2015 Oct;58(2):134-58. doi: 10.1080/00029157.2015.1039114
Palsson O., University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, USA
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26264539

5.2. Long Term Benefits of Hypnotherapy for Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS)

Results: 71% of patients initially responded to hypnotherapy. Of these, 81% maintained their improvement over time while the majority of the remaining 19% claimed that deterioration of symptoms had only been slight. With respect to symptom scores, all items at follow up were significantly improved on pre-hypnotherapy levels (p<0.001) and showed little change from post-hypnotherapy values. There were no significant differences in the symptom scores between patients assessed at 1, 2, 3, 4, or 5+ years following treatment. Quality of life and anxiety or depression scores were similarly still significantly improved at follow up (p<0.001) but did show some deterioration. Patients also reported a reduction in consultation rates and medication use following the completion of hypnotherapy.

Conclusion: This study demonstrates that the beneficial effects of hypnotherapy appear to last at least five years. Thus it is a viable therapeutic option for the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome.

Notes: Patients and methods: 204 patients prospectively completed questionnaires scoring symptoms, quality of life, anxiety, and depression before, immediately after, and up to six years following hypnotherapy. All subjects also subjectively assessed the effects of hypnotherapy retrospectively in order to define their “responder status”. Gut directed hypnotherapy comprises a course of up to 12 weekly 1 hour sessions. Each session consists of induction of the hypnotic state and deepening procedures, followed by “ego strengthening” suggestions relevant to the individual. These are accompanied by further suggestions and interventions, such as inducing warmth in the abdomen using the hands and imagery, directed towards controlling and normalizing gut function.
This study presents the first long term follow up of a large number of patients who have undergone hypnotherapy for IBS symptoms.

Gut 2003;52:1623-1629 doi:10.1136/gut.52.11.1623
By: W. M. Gonsalkorale, V. Miller, A. Afzal, P. J. Whorwell, Department of Medicine, University Hospital of South Manchester, Manchester, UK Correspondence to: Dr. W. M. Gonsalkorale Hypnotherapy Unit, Withington Hospital, Nell Lane, Manchester M20 2LR, UK
http://gut.bmj.com/content/52/11/1623.short


Other Medical Issues

Here are brief descriptions of just some of the top studies done at universities and hospitals that show how hypnosis helps with various other medical issues.

1. Dementia / Alzheimer’s Disease
In 2007, a study done by researchers in two care homes in the United Kingdom found that dementia patients who received regular weekly hypnosis sessions over a 9-month period showed improvements in all 7 aspects of their “quality of life”: concentration, relaxation, motivation, activities of daily living, immediate memory, memory of significant events, and socialization. In fact, some of those improvements were maintained for a period of time after the study – such as for 21 months or more from the start date of the study.[1]

1.1. Alternative Approaches to Supporting Individuals with Dementia: Enhancing Quality of Life Through Hypnosis

Results: This pilot study explored the use of hypnosis to influence 7 aspects of quality of life in individuals with dementia: concentration, relaxation, motivation, activities of daily living, immediate memory, memory of significant events, and socialization. The results indicate that hypnosis has a beneficial impact on quality of life on both a short-term and long-term basis. Unlike the other study participants, the participants in the hypnosis group showed improvement in all 7 items – some of which were maintained over a period of time, such as 21 months or more.

The study authors hypothesize that perhaps an individual with dementia is aware of his or her gradual loss of abilities. That awareness leads to increased levels of anxiety and depression – which are known to involve active cognitive processing. Because the individual’s limited cognitive resources are being used up by anxiety and depression, even greater loss of memory, motivation and ability takes place. The authors further hypothesize that hypnosis may decrease an individual with dementia’s anxiety and depression (through positive suggestion and relaxation), which – in turn – may free up otherwise engaged resources so they are available for the individual to use to successfully accomplish cognitive tasks.

Notes: Eighteen participants were recruited from 2 care homes and were randomly allocated into 1 of 3 groups, the hypnosis group (HG), the discussion group (DG), and the treatment-as-usual group (TG). The HG received weekly individual sessions of hypnosis carried out in their single-occupancy bedrooms at their residential or nursing home. Each session lasted approximately 1 hour. Thus, over the 9-month period each HG participant received a total of 36 hours of hypnosis in 36 sessions. Prior to the first hypnosis session, each participant received 1-hour consultation and interview to customize the terminology used during the hypnosis sessions. This ensured that the language used was familiar and personalized for each participant and to ensure comprehension of suggestions that were to be used. Participants were also introduced to the process of progressive muscle relaxation. Participants were induced into hypnosis in 3 phases: (i) eye closure, (ii) progressive muscle relaxation, starting at the scalp and moving progressively down toward the feet, and (iii) a permissive induction. Permissive inductions “ask” each participant to allow oneself to become more relaxed. After deepening, the HG participants were given direct suggestions relating to the 7 items described earlier, along with additional “CRC” suggestions (Calmness, Relaxation, and Confidence). Examples of the statements are provided below.

At the end of this session, and between now and the next time I see you, you will feel more relaxed and at ease, more motivated to do the things you want to do.
You will have clarity of thought; you will be able to concentrate for longer periods of time.
You will have fewer concerns and less feelings of anxiousness.
Spending time with others will have meaning and you will want to spend time chatting with others.

For each of the 7 items, all participants were rated on a 7-point scale, assessed once at the start of the study period and then at weekly intervals.

Alzheimer’s Care Today 2007; 8(4):321-331
By: Simon Duff, Ph.D., is a chartered forensic psychologist and a trained hypnotherapist, working at the Division of Clinical Psychology, University of Liverpool, and the Mersey Forensic Psychology Service, Liverpool, United Kingdom. Daniel Nightingale, Ph.D., was first trained in social work, then as a registered nurse in learning disabilities before completing a doctorate in both learning disabilities and transitional shock. He is a trained hypnotherapist and head of dementia services at Southern Cross Healthcare, The Alton Centre, Northampton, United Kingdom.
http://dementiatherapyspecialists.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/08/Alzheimers-Care-Today-article.pdf


2. Arthritis
In 2000, researchers from the Institute of Medical Psychology, Ludwig-Maximilian-University in Germany conducted a study involving 66 Rheumatoid Arthritis patients. The patients who used hypnosis experienced clinically significant improvements in both subjective measurements (e.g., to assess the severity of joint pain/function) and objective measurements (e.g. testing blood samples for indicators of inflammation). The patients who used hypnosis improved more than the patients in the study who used other techniques – such as relaxation. And, improvements became even more significant if one of the patients in the study practiced hypnosis regularly during follow-up periods.[1]

2.1. The Effect of Hypnosis Therapy on the Symptoms and Disease Activity in Rheumatoid Arthritis

Results: Results indicate that the hypnosis therapy produced more significant improvements in both the subjective and objective measurements, above relaxation and medication. Improvements were also found to be of clinical significance and became even more significant when patients practiced the hypnosis regularly during the follow-up periods.

Notes: The present study aimed to assess the effectiveness of clinical hypnosis on the symptoms and disease activity of Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA). Sixty-six RA patients participated in a controlled group design. Twenty-six patients learnt the hypnosis intervention, 20 patients were in a relaxation control group and 20 patients were in a waiting-list control group. During hypnosis, patients developed individual visual imagery aimed at reducing the autoimmune activity underlying the RA and at reducing the symptoms of joint pain, swelling and stiffness. Subjective assessments of symptom severity and body and joint function, using standardized questionnaires and visual analogue scales, were obtained. Objective measures of disease activity via multiple blood samples during the therapy period and at the two follow-ups were also taken. These measurements were of erythrocyte sedimentation rate. C-reactive protein, hemoglobin and leukocyte total numbers.

Psychol Health. 2000 Nov;14(6):1089-104
By: J. R. Horton-Hausknecht, U. Mitzdorf, D. Melchart, Institute of Medical Psychology, Ludwig-Maximilian-University, Goethestr, 31, 80336, Munich, Germany
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22175264


3. Asthma
In 2000, researchers from the University of California analyzed numerous studies that had previously been conducted about the effect of hypnosis on asthmatic patients. Those researchers concluded that the studies that have already been done consistently demonstrate the power of hypnosis to help someone with asthma. Children in particular seemed to respond well to hypnosis as a tool.[1]

In 2007, a Harvard Medical School Ph.D. reviewed the evidence from various controlled outcome studies on hypnosis for asthma. The review concluded that hypnosis may be successfully used to treat asthma symptom severity as well as emotional states that can exacerbate airway obstruction.[2]

3.1. Hypnosis and Asthma: Critical Review

Results: This report concluded that studies conducted to date have consistently demonstrated an effect of hypnosis with asthma. Existing data suggest that hypnosis efficacy is enhanced in subjects who are susceptible to the treatment modality (hypnosis), with experienced investigators, when administered over several sessions, and when reinforced by patient self-hypnosis. Children in particular appear to respond well to hypnosis as a tool for improving asthma symptoms.

Notes: This report analyzed numerous studies that were conducted on the effect of hypnosis on asthmatic patients.
Journal of Asthma, Volume 37, Issue 1 February 2000, pages 1-15
By: R. M. Hackman, J. S. Stern, M. E. Gershwin, University of California
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10724294

3.2. Evidence-Based Hypnotherapy for Asthma: A Critical Review

Results: This review concludes that hypnosis is possibly efficacious for treatment of asthma symptom severity and illness-related behaviors and is efficacious for managing emotional states that exacerbate airway obstruction. Hypnosis is also possibly efficacious for decreasing airway obstruction and stabilizing airway hyper-responsiveness in some individuals.

Notes: This paper reviewed evidence primarily from controlled outcome studies on hypnosis for asthma.
International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis 2007 April.55(2)220-49
By: Daniel Brown, Ph.D., Harvard Medical School
http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/00207140601177947?journalCode=nhyp20


4. Blood Pressure
In 2007, a University of Paris Ph.D. in clinical psychology studied 30 participants with high blood pressure and concluded that hypnosis is effective in reducing blood pressure both in the short term and long term.[1]

4.1. Effectiveness of Hypnosis in Reducing Mild Essential Hypertension: A One-Year Follow-Up

Results: The present study investigates the effectiveness of hypnosis in reducing mild essential hypertension. Results show that hypnosis is effective in reducing blood pressure in the short term but also in the middle and long terms.

Notes: Thirty participants who were suffering from mild essential hypertension were randomly assigned to either a control group (which did not receive any treatment) or a hypnosis group (where each person received 8 individually tailored hypnosis sessions).

International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, Vol. 55, Issue 1, 2007
By: M. C. Gay, Univ. of Paris, France
http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/00207140600995893
https://www.researchgate.net/project/Nurse-Led-Hypnosis-Service


5. Cancer
In a study of 150 participants concluding in 2015, a nurse and researcher at the City of Hope Cancer Center studied 150 cancer patients and found that 78% of those who used hypnosis experienced significant, lasting reduction in symptoms such as anxiety, pain, sleeplessness, fatigue, nausea and vomiting.[1]

In 2013, researchers from the Mount Sinai School of Medicine and the City of Hope Cancer Center reviewed the empirical literature on hypnosis as a cancer prevention and control technique. They concluded that hypnosis has strong support for use in surgery and other invasive procedures and shows promise to help with chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and metastatic disease.[2]

In 2005, researchers from hospitals and hospices in the United Kingdom studied the impact of hypnosis on 20 hospice cancer patients. They found that hypnotherapy did help the cancer patients with insomnia, frequent bowel actions, itchiness, pain, chemotherapy side effects like nausea and fatigue, and anxiety. They also concluded that the “best time for hypnotherapy to be offered to cancer patients is right at the time of diagnosis.”[3]

5.1. Nurse-Led Hypnosis Service
This independent nursing practice provides hypnosis services to cancer patients for the management of cancer and cancer treatment-related side-effects including pain, anxiety, nausea and vomiting, depression, insomnia, and fatigue. In addition, behavioral change (smoking and weight management) may be addressed.
https://www.researchgate.net/project/Nurse-Led-Hypnosis-Service

5.2. Hypnosis for Cancer Care: Over 200 Years Young
Notes: Hypnosis has been used to provide psychological and physical comfort to individuals diagnosed with cancer for nearly 200 years. The goals of this review are: 1) to describe hypnosis and its components and to dispel misconceptions; 2) to provide an overview of hypnosis as a cancer prevention and control technique (covering its use in weight management, smoking cessation, as an adjunct to diagnostic and treatment procedures, survivorship, and metastatic disease); and 3) to discuss future research directions. Overall, the literature supports the benefits of hypnosis for improving quality of life during the course of cancer and its treatment.

CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians, Volume 63, Issue 1, pages 31-44, January/February 2013
By: Guy H. Montgomery Ph.D., Director, Integrative Behavioral Medicine Program, Associate Professor, Department of Oncological Sciences, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY
Julie B. Schnur Ph.D., Co-Director, Integrative Behavioral Medicine Program, Assistant Professor, Department of Oncological Sciences, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY
Kate Kravits MA, RN, HNB-BC, LPC, NCC, ATR-BC, Senior Research Specialist, Division of Nursing Research and Education, Department of Population Sciences, City of Hope, Duarte, CA
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.3322/caac.21165/full

5.3. Efficacy of Hypnotherapy as a Supplement Therapy in Cancer Intervention

Results: Of the 20 patients who completed the three sessions of hypnotherapy all reported varying degrees of anxiety. 5 patients wanted to have hypnotherapy for insomnia as a primary presenting complain, 1 for excessive itchiness during night time, 1 for excessively frequent bowel actions – 8 to 10 times a day for the last year, which invariably interfered with his social life and prevented him from going out, 8 wanted to have hypnotherapy for pain control, 3 patients opted for hypnotherapy to prevent the side effects of chemotherapy and 2 patients had it specifically for severe anxiety and panic attacks.

The 5 patients who had hypnotherapy for insomnia all reported improved sleeping patterns even after the first session. After the third session none of them complained of insomnia and this result was sustained till the followup, which was 3 to 4 months after the first session. They also reported increased energy levels, less tiredness and improved appetite. 2 of the patients with insomnia have been on Temazepam 10mg before bed, which they voluntarily stopped taking after the first session.

The patient with nighttime itchiness reported that their itchiness stopped after the first session and she continued with the remaining two hypnotherapy sessions working towards pain control.

The patient with frequent bowel action reported that he managed to half the number of times he went to the toilet after the second session.
Of the 8 patients who had hypnotherapy for pain control, all reported that the intensity of pain has significantly been reduced and as a result they have reduced heir dose of opiate analgesics taken daily.

The 3 patients, who took part in the study to prevent the side effects of chemotherapy, also reported very good results with no nausea, sickness and less loss of energy, which was in contrast with their previous experience with chemotherapy.

Most of the patients (19 out of 20) reported that after the first two hypnotherapy sessions they were able to relax for the first time in a very long period, felt less tired and more energetic, had more refreshing night sleep and as a result were able to cope better with their daily activities.

It appears that the best time for hypnotherapy to be offered to cancer patients is right at the time of diagnosis. In that way, patients will be able to develop better coping skills much earlier in the disease process, which will help them to possibly prevent severe anxiety, depression and panic attacks from developing. They will have better treatment compliance and generally will have a more positive psychological response to their illness, which has been suggested as a good prognostic factor with an influence on survival.

Notes: All the patients who took part in the trial were day hospice patients of Ann Delhom Centre, Wisdom Hospice, Rochester, UK. Patients were offered three hypnotherapy sessions and were assessed before the first session and after the third one together with a follow up after 3/4 months after the last session. On the first session all the patients were taught ”progressive muscle relaxation” and self- hypnosis. Short ego boosting was also incorporated at the end of the session. The second and third sessions were different for every patient depending on the expressed symptoms and because of that were always individually tailored. Most of the sessions included guided imagery and direct therapeutic suggestions.

European Journal of Clinical Hypnosis: 2005 Volume 6 – Issue 1
By: Dr Rumi Peynovska, Dr Jackie Fisher, Dr David Oliver, Prof V.M. MathewStone House Hospital, Dartford, West Kent NHS and Social Care Trust, Wisdom Hospice, Rochester, Medway NHS Trust
Dr Rumi Peynovska MD, MSc, FBAMH – Research Fellow, Stone House Hospital, Dartford, West Kent NHS Trust
Dr Jackie Fisher BSc, MRCGP – Consultant in Palliative Medicine, Wisdom Hospice, Rochester, Medway NHS Trust
Dr David Oliver BSc, FRCGP – Consultant and Medical Director, Wisdom Hospice, Rochester, Medway NHS Trust
Prof. V.M. Mathew MBBS, MPhil, MRCPsych – Clinical Director, Stone House Hospital, Dartford, West Kent NHS Trust
http://bscw.rediris.es/pub/bscw.cgi/d4431493/Peynovska-Efficacy_hypnotherapy_supplement_therapy_cancer


6. Diabetes
In 2008, researchers from Lund University in Sweden concluded that empirical research shows promising results for hypnosis as an adjunct therapy to insulin treatments in the management of diabetes.[1]

6.1. Hypnosis as an Adjunct Therapy in the Management of Diabetes

Results: The research literature shows promising results for hypnosis as an adjunct therapy in the management of diabetes that merit further exploration. Multimodal treatments seem especially promising, with hypnosis as an adjunct to insulin treatments in the management of both Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes for stabilization of blood glucose and decreased peripheral vascular complications.

Notes: Because diabetes has important psychological components, it seems reasonable to consider hypnosis as an adjunct therapy for diabetes. This paper examines the empirical literature on the effectiveness of hypnosis in the management of diabetes, including regulation of blood sugar, increased compliance, and improvement of peripheral blood circulation.

International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 2008, Jan. 56(1): 63-72
By: Y. Xu, E. Cardeña, Lund University, Lund, Sweden
http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/00207140701673050#preview


7. Headaches
In 2007, a Professor at the University of Utah School of Medicine reviewed numerous studies on hypnosis for headaches and concluded that hypnosis is a well-established, effective treatment for headaches and migraines.[1]

In 2007, a researcher from the University of Minnesota studied 144 children and adolescents who were taught self-hypnosis to help with recurrent headaches. The results showed the hypnosis significantly helped with frequency of headaches, intensity of headaches, and duration of headaches.[2]

7.1. Review of the Efficacy of Clinical Hypnosis with Headaches and Migraines

Results: Concluded that hypnosis meets the criteria to be considered a well-established, effective treatment for headaches and migraines. Furthermore, hypnosis does not carry any risk of causing an adverse reaction.

Notes: This was a review of the numerous studies on hypnosis for headaches. The author also recommends the following for those who frequently wake up in the morning with a headache or migraine: a self-hypnosis tape (that is left open-ended at its conclusion) can be used at bedtime to promote calming and deep relaxation, with repetitive suggestions that “As you sleep, your jaw will remain relaxed and at ease throughout the night, free from tension and tightness. And if there is a need to clench anything, your mind will cause you to clench a hand into a fist, but your jaw will remain loose and limp, relaxed and at ease as you sleep.”

Int’l Jrnl of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, Vol. 55(2), April 2007; 207-219
By: Corydon Hammond, University of Utah School of Medicine, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA
http://bscw.rediris.es/pub/bscw.cgi/d4531149/Hammond-Review_efficacy_clinical_hypnosis_headaches_migraines.pdf

7.2. Self-Hypnosis Training for Headaches in Children and Adolescents

Results: Data were available for 144 patients in this patient self-selected and uncontrolled observation. Compared with self-reports before learning self-hypnosis, children and youths who learned self-hypnosis for recurrent headaches reported reduction in frequency of headache from an average of 4.5 per week to 1.4 per week (P < .01), reduction in intensity (on a self-rating scale of 0 to 12) from an average of 10.3 to 4.7, P < .01, and reduction in average duration from 23.6 hours to 3.0 hours, (P < .01). There were no adverse side effects of self-hypnosis. Conclusion: training in self-hypnosis is associated with significant improvement of chronic recurrent headaches in children and adolescents.

Notes: A retrospective review was conducted of outpatient clinical records of 178 consecutive youths referred to the Behavioral Pediatrics Program (University of Minnesota) from 1988 to 2001 for recurrent headaches. All patients were taught self-hypnosis for self-regulation. Intensity, frequency, and duration of headaches before, during, and after treatment were measured. Outcomes included number and frequency of visits, types of medication, and nature of self-hypnosis practice.

Induction (initiation) of hypnosis was typically easily begun with simple focus on eye closure and imagination of any one of the patient’s several favorite activities. Intensification or deepening of the hypnotic experience was accomplished with suggestions for multisensory imagery (eg, encouraging the patient to imagine being in their favorite place, enjoying what they see, hear, feel, taste, and smell there), progressive relaxation (eg, head to toe or toe to head), or both.

Hypnotic suggestions for control of headaches (“HA”) were offered as a “menu” from which the patient could choose, for example, “When you have a HA, let yourself imagine you are somewhere where you never have a HA, and go there,” “When you have a HA, picture in your mind that ruler from 0 to 12 on which you measure your HA… Notice what number it is on, perhaps 8 or 6 or 3 or 9 or 7… and then watch the number go lower. Maybe you will do that as though you were on an elevator… if your HA is a 7, push the button to ride down to 6, and then and… then… 4… and… then… all the way to 0,” “OR maybe you will imagine your HA is a certain shape and color and in another part of your mind is the color and shape of happy and comfortable… and you can watch the HA shape and color in your mind get smaller and smaller and smaller while the happy and comfort shape get bigger and bigger until it fills the screen in your imagination,” “OR perhaps you will have another way in your mind. Whichever works best for you is the best for you.” Before conclusion of the first hypnotic session, all patients were taught precisely how to do SH at home and were encouraged to practice this two to three times daily.

J Pediatr. 2007 Jun;150(6):635-9
By: D. P. Kohen, R. Zajac, Department of Pediatrics, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA
http://ebookbrowse.com/gdoc.php?id=435252039&url=ac2894a8b2be0660279800264f0ac821
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?Db=pubmed&Cmd=ShowDetailView&TermToSearch=17517250&ordinalpos=1&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_ResultsPanel.Pubmed_RVDocSum


8. Healing – Healing of Broken Bones, Post-Surgical Wound Healing

In 1999, researchers at Harvard Medical School studied 11 people with fractured bones and concluded that those participants who used hypnosis healed faster (by 2 ½ weeks), required less pain medication, showed more improvement in ankle mobility, and had an easier time descending stairs.[1]

In 2003, researchers at Harvard Medical School studied 18 patients who had breast reduction surgery. They concluded that those participants who used hypnosis healed significantly faster than those who did not use hypnosis.[2]

8.1. Using Hypnosis to Accelerate the Healing of Bone Fractures: A Randomized Controlled Pilot Study

Results: Radiographs taken at 6 weeks showed that the hypnosis group were healing much faster than the control group (it was estimated that it took the control group another 2½ weeks to achieve the same level of healing). Other assessments also revealed that those who had used hypnosis required less medication for the pain, had a significant improvement in the mobility of their ankle, and had an easier time descending stairs then did those in the control group. The authors concluded that hypnosis can accelerate the healing of fractured bones and: …this preliminary study reinforces findings of a fascinating link between mind and body in augmenting healing. If the mind can be harnessed to accelerate the speed of healing in a difficult test – that is, the relatively fixed, normative course and time frame of a non-displaced bone fracture – it may be even more effective in other applications in which the course of healing is presumed more variable.

Notes: In this study, 11 subjects who had fractured bones were randomly assigned to a control or a hypnosis group. All subjects received the standard care for orthopedic patients (which included clinical assessments and radiographs over the 12 weeks following the fracture). The hypnosis group received a series of individual office visits as well a audiotapes reinforcing the content of the hypnotic sessions. Direct and indirect suggestions were given to reduce inflammation and swelling, alleviate pain, stimulate tissue growth and fusion at the injury site and counteract the psychological distress associated with injury. Hypnotic mental rehearsal of increased ankle mobility, enhanced bone strength, and recovery of normal activities for rehabilitation were included.

Altern Ther Health Med. 1999 Mar;5(2):67-75
By: C. S. Ginandes, Clinical Instructor, Dept. of Psychiatry, Harvard Medical School and Senior Attending Psychologist, McLean Hospital
D. I. Rosenthal, Professor of Radiology at Harvard Medical School, Director of Dept. of Bone and Joint Radiology at Massachusetts General Hospital in Boston
http://knowledgetranslation.ca/sysrev/articles/project51/Ginandes1999.pdf

8.2. Can Medical Hypnosis Accelerate Post-Surgical Wound Healing? Results of a Clinical Trial

Results: The researchers found that during the 7 weeks following surgery, those who were in the hypnosis group healed significantly faster then those in the other two groups. This study concluded that hypnosis can significantly accelerate the healing of surgical wounds.

Notes: Eighteen patients who were due to have surgery to reduce the size of their breasts were randomly assigned to one of three groups. The first group (the control group) received standard care; the second group received 8 “supportive” sessions (to make sure that the outcome was not simply the result of the extra attention paid to the patients); while the third group received 8 hypnosis sessions that focused on accelerating the healing of their surgical wounds. Digital photographs were taken and various objective techniques were used to measure the rate of healing.

Am J Clin Hypn. 2003 Apr;45(4):333-51
By: C. Ginandes, P. Brooks, W. Sando, C. Jones, J. Aker, Department of Psychology, Harvard Medical School, McLean Hospital, 115 Mill Street Belmont, MA 02478, USA
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12722936
http://news.harvard.edu/gazette/2003/05.08/01-hypnosis.html


9. HPV – Human Papillomavirus

In 2009, researchers from Washington State University and Eastern Washington University studied the effect of hypnosis on human papillomavirus (HPV), which is the most common sexually transmitted diseases and can lead to cervical and other cancers. Hypnosis resulted in statistically significant reduction in areas and numbers of lesions. Hypnosis also was more effective than medical treatment in achieving complete clearance of warts.[1]

9.1. Efficacy of Hypnosis in the Treatment of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) in Women: Rural and Urban Samples

Results: Both hypnosis and medical therapy resulted in a statistically significant (p < .04) reduction in areas and numbers of lesions. Yet, at the 12-week follow-up, complete clearance rates were 5 to 1 in favor of hypnosis.

Notes: This article investigates the effect of hypnosis on immunity and whether this is the key mechanism in the hypnotic treatment of the genital infection caused by human papillomavirus (HPV). HPV is the most common sexually transmitted disease and can lead to cervical and other cancers. Current medical treatments are aimed at tissue assault (acids, freezing, surgery). Medical wart clearance rates are only 30% to 70% and reoccurrence is common. This research contrasted hypnosis-only with medical-only therapies, using both urban hospital and rural community samples.

International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, Volume 58, Issue 1, 2009, Pages 102-121
By: Arreed Barabasz, Linda Higley, Ciara Christensen and Marianne Barabasz, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington, USA, Eastern Washington University, Riverpoint, Washington, USA
http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/00207140903310899#.UiB2JRavszI


10. Medical Tests – Hypnosis to Make Tests Easier and More Comfortable

In 2010, researchers in Brazil studied 20 claustrophobic patients to evaluate the use of hypnosis for management of claustrophobia in patients submitted to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). They found that 15 of the 16 hypnotizable subjects who were submitted to magnetic resonance imaging could complete the examination under hypnotic trance, with no sign of claustrophobia and without need of sedative drugs.[1]

In 2006, researchers, including ones from Baylor University and Texas A & M University College of Medicine, studied hypnosis for pain and anxiety management in 6 colonoscopy patients who received a hypnotic induction and instruction in self-hypnosis on the day of their colonoscopy. Their results suggest that hypnosis appears to be a feasible method to manage anxiety and pain associated with colonoscopy, reduces the need for sedation, and may have other benefits such as reduced vasovagal events and recovery time.[2]

In 2008, researchers from Mount Sinai School of Medicine studied 90 patients who were having breast biopsies and concluded that brief presurgery hypnosis is an effective way of controlling distress in women awaiting diagnostic breast cancer surgery.[3]

10.1. Hypnosis for Management of Claustrophobia in Magnetic Resonance Imaging
(Study developed at Hospital e Maternidade São Camilo Pompeia, São Paulo, SP, Brazil)

Results: Out of the sample, 18 (90%) patients were susceptible to the technique. Of the 16 hypnotizable subjects who were submitted to magnetic resonance imaging, 15 (93.8%) could complete the examination under hypnotic trance, with no sign of claustrophobia and without need of sedative drugs.

Conclusion: Hypnosis is an alternative to anesthetic sedation for claustrophobic patients who must undergo magnetic resonance imaging.

Notes: The objective was to evaluate the efficacy of hypnosis for management of claustrophobia in patients submitted to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Twenty claustrophobic patients referred for magnetic resonance imaging under sedation were submitted to hypnosis The patients susceptible to hypnosis were submitted to magnetic resonance imaging under hypnotic trance without using sedative drugs.

After hypnotic induction, the patients underwent ideosensory activities, with induction of vivid, pleasant visual and kinesthetic sensations (walk through a relaxing, safe and welcoming landscape) associated with a sensation of peace, tranquility and safety. After the establishment of the hypnogenic signal, the patients were dehypnotized for assessment of the depth and efficacy of the induced hypnotic trance. Subsequently, hypnosis was induced again, this time by means of the hypnogenic signal. In this second procedure (double induction technique), the patients were introduced to the different phases of the MRI examination which are resignified and associated with the relaxing sensation achieved in the previous ideosensory activity. On the occasion of the procedure, the patient was hypnotized with utilization of the hypnogenic signal in a preparation room, and taken on a wheelchair to the MRI equipment, being dehypnotized once the procedure was completed.

Radiologia Brasileira, Vol. 43, No. 1, São Paulo Jan./Feb. 2010
By: Luiz Guilherme Carneiro Velloso (Maternidade São Camilo Pompeia, São Paulo, SP, Brazil); Maria de Lourdes DupratII (Psychologist, Group of Medical Hypnosis and Hypnotherapy of Hospital e Maternidade São Camilo Pompeia, São Paulo, SP, Brazil); Ricardo Martins (Biomedical Scientist, Unit of Imaging Diagnosis – Hospital e Maternidade São Camilo Pompeia, São Paulo, SP, Brazil); Luiz Scoppetta (MD, Radiologist, Unit of Imaging Diagnosis – Hospital e Maternidade São Camilo Pompeia, São Paulo, SP, Brazil)
http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0100-39842010000100007&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en

10.2. Hypnosis to Manage Anxiety and Pain Associated with Colonoscopy for Colorectal Cancer Screening: Case Studies and Possible Benefits

Results: Results suggest that hypnosis appears to be a feasible method to manage anxiety and pain associated with colonoscopy, reduces the need for sedation, and may have other benefits such as reduced vasovagal events and recovery time.

Notes: This study explored using hypnosis for pain and anxiety management in 6 colonoscopy patients (5 men, 1 woman), who received a hypnotic induction and instruction in self-hypnosis on the day of their colonoscopy. Patients’ levels of anxiety were obtained before and after the hypnotic induction using Visual Analogue Scales (VAS). Following colonoscopy, VASs were used to assess anxiety and pain during colonoscopy, perceived effectiveness of hypnosis, and patient satisfaction with medical care. Hypnotizability was assessed at a separate appointment. The authors also obtained data (time for procedure, number of vasovagal events, and recovery time) for 10 consecutive patients who received standard care.

International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, Volume 54, Issue 4, 2006
By: Gary Elkins, Joseph White, Parita Patel, Joel Marcus, Michelle M. Perfect und Guy H. Montgomery
Author Affiliations:
a. Baylor University, Waco, Texas, USA
b. Scott and White Memorial Hospital, Temple, Texas, USA
c. Texas A & M University College of Medicine, College Station, Texas, USA
d. Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, New York, USA)
http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/00207140600856780#preview

10.3. Hypnosis Decreases Presurgical Distress in Excisional Breast Biopsy Patients

Results: Post intervention, and before surgery, patients in the hypnosis group had significantly lower mean values for presurgery VAS emotional upset (16.5 vs 38.2, P < 0.0001, d = .85), VAS depressed mood (6.6 vs 19.9, P < 0.02, d = .67), and SV-POMS anxiety (10.0 vs 5.0, P < 0.0001, d = 0.85); and significantly higher levels for VAS relaxation (75.7 vs 54.2, P < 0.001, d = -0.76) than attention controls. The study results indicate that a brief presurgery hypnosis intervention can be an effective means of controlling presurgical distress in women awaiting diagnostic breast cancer surgery.

Notes: Excisional breast biopsy is associated with presurgical psychological distress. Such distress is emotionally taxing, and may have negative implications for postsurgical side effects and satisfaction with anesthesia. We investigated the ability of a brief hypnosis session to reduce presurgical psychological distress in excisional breast biopsy patients. Ninety patients presenting for excisional breast biopsy were randomly assigned to receive either a 15-minute pre-surgery hypnosis session (n = 49, mean age: 46.4 (95% CI: 42.3-50.4)) or a 15-minute pre-surgery attention control session (n = 41, mean age: 45.0 (95% CI: 40.8-49.2)). The hypnosis session involved suggestions for increased relaxation and decreased distress. The attention control session involved non-directive empathic listening. Pre-surgery distress was measured using visual analog scales (VAS) and the short version of the Profile of Mood States (SV-POMS). Data were analyzed using analysis of variance and chi2 procedures.

Anesth Analg. 2008 Feb;106(2):440-4
By: J. B. Schnur, D. H. Bovbjerg, D. David, K. Tatrow, A. B. Goldfarb, J. H. Silverstein, C. R. Weltz, G. H. Montgomery, Department of Oncological Sciences, Box 1130, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, 1 Gustave L. Levy Place, New York City, NY 10029-6574, USA
Am Psychol. 2014 Feb-Mar;69(2):167-77. doi: 10.1037/a0035644
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18227298


11. Pain

In 2014, researchers from the University of Washington reviewed recent clinical trials regarding studies hypnosis for pain management and found that hypnosis is effective for reducing chronic pain. They conclude that: “Chronic pain management remains one of the largest challenges in health care, and hypnosis is an undeveloped but highly promising intervention that can help to address this problem.”[1]

In 2015, researchers from the University of Rome reviewed functional neuroimaging studies focusing on pain perception under hypnosis, which supported the clinical use of hypnosis in the management of pain conditions.[2]

11.1. Hypnotic Approaches for Chronic Pain Management: Clinical Implications of Recent Research Findings

Abstract: The empirical support for hypnosis for chronic pain management has flourished over the past two decades. Clinical trials show that hypnosis is effective for reducing chronic pain, although outcomes vary between individuals. The findings from these clinical trials also show that hypnotic treatments have a number of positive effects beyond pain control. Neurophysiological studies reveal that hypnotic analgesia has clear effects on brain and spinal-cord functioning that differ as a function of the specific hypnotic suggestions made, providing further evidence for the specific effects of hypnosis. The research results have important implications for how clinicians can help their clients experience maximum benefits from hypnosis and treatments that include hypnotic components.

Am Psychol. 2014 Feb-Mar;69(2):167-77. doi: 10.1037/a0035644
Jensen MP, Patterson DR, Dept. of Rehabilitation Medicine, University of Washington
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24547802

11.2. Pain Perception and Hypnosis: Findings from Recent Functional Neuroimaging Studies

Hypnosis modulates pain perception and tolerance by affecting cortical and subcortical activity in brain regions involved in these processes. By reviewing functional neuroimaging studies focusing on pain perception under hypnosis, the authors aimed to identify brain activation-deactivation patterns occurring in hypnosis-modulated pain conditions. Different changes in brain functionality occurred throughout all components of the pain network and other brain areas. The anterior cingulate cortex appears to be central in modulating pain circuitry activity under hypnosis. Most studies also showed that the neural functions of the prefrontal, insular, and somatosensory cortices are consistently modified during hypnosis-modulated pain conditions. Functional neuroimaging studies support the clinical use of hypnosis in the management of pain conditions.

Int J Clin Exp Hypn. 2015;63(2):144-70. doi: 10.1080/00207144.2015.1002371
Del Casale A1, Ferracuti S, Rapinesi C, Serata D, Caltagirone SS, Savoja V, Piacentino D, Callovini G, Manfredi G, Sani G, Kotzalidis GD, Girardi P., University of Rome
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25719519


12. Strokes

In 2006, researchers from Harvard University and Massachusetts General Hospital conducted a clinical study of six chronic stroke subjects who were hypnotized. Measurements of motor function and brain activity were taken. After hypnosis, the six subjects exhibited qualitative improvement in motor function related to increased range of motion, increased grip strength, and reduced spasticity of the paretic upper limb. After hypnosis, the subjects also reported an improved outlook, increased motivation as well as decreased effort to perform motor tasks.[1]

12.1. Hypnosis for Rehabilitation After Stroke: Six Case Studies

Results: After hypnosis, the six chronic stroke subjects exhibited qualitative improvements in motor function related to increased range of motion, increased grip strength, and reduced spasticity of the paretic upper limb. Subjects also consistently reported after hypnosis an improved outlook, increased motivation, as well as greater awareness of and decreased effort to perform motor tasks with the paretic limb.

Notes: This was a clinical study of six chronic stroke subjects who were hypnotized. Measurements of motor function and brain activity were taken. The researchers’ hypothesis was that a hypnotic procedure would help overcome learned nonuse, which is thought to contribute to impaired motor function of the paretic upper limb in chronic stroke patients.

The hypnotic procedure involved selecting motor tasks that would challenge each subject, then (1) imagined practice of the challenging motor task revivified from prior to the stroke alternated with imagined practice in the present; (2) having the subjects imagine performing the task with eyes opened – alternating with eyes closed (imagined practice in the present alternated with imagined practice during active-alert hypnosis); and (3) active-alert imagined practice alternated with actual physical performance. Four sessions established a baseline motor function. Four sessions of the hypnotic procedure were then given. Finally, four follow-up sessions were conducted to track changes in motor function post-intervention. The hypnotic procedures were approximately one hour in duration and occurred with a frequency of once or twice per week.

Subject 1: Among other things, in hypnosis, this subject visualized entering his office and counting out money for the week’s payroll – a task that requires considerable dexterity. On the fourth hypnosis session, the subject said that he tied his own shoelaces for the first time since the stroke.

Subject 2: Among other things, in hypnosis, this subject visualized operating motorcycle controls and imagined relaxing while floating on the water of a favorite lake – to reduce the tensing up that inhibited movements. After a number of hypnosis sessions, the subject reported increased sensation in his hand. He also reported less effort to squeeze his hand.

Subject 3: Among other things, in hypnosis, this subject was given suggestions for increased awareness and connectivity with her limbs. She described that she could imagine wires in her arms to connect to her hand that were in a tangled up mess. Suggestions were given to color the wires one at a time and add labels indicating which wire went to which finger. The subject reported feeling increased awareness of her hand after this process.

Subject 4: Among other things, in hypnosis, this subject visualized playing his cello with fluid movement of the bow. In time, the subject felt his paretic limb extension was improving, and he was regaining the ability to pick up cans and form a precision grip.

Subject 5: Among other things, in hypnosis, this subject visualized dribbling a basketball. He reported that he could bounce a ball after the hypnosis session about 10 times when before he could only achieve 1 or 2 bounces. Improvements were observed in the range of motion of wrist rotation and finger extension.

Subject 6: Among other things, in hypnosis, this subject visualized a hand grip motor task. After hypnosis sessions, her performance on the task steadily improved. By the 3rd hypnosis session, it was also noticeably easier to remove the grip from her hand.
Each of the six subjects/case studies is individually described and detailed.

Contemp. Hypnosis 23(4): 173-180 (2006) Published online in Wiley InterScience (www.interscience.wiley.com) DOI: 10.1002/ch.319
S. G. Diamond, R. Howe* **, Orin C. Davis**, Judith D. Schaechter**, and Robert D. Howe*
* Harvard University, Division of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Cambridge, MA, USA
** Massachusetts General Hospital, Athinoula A. Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging, Charlestown, MA, USA
http://biorobotics.harvard.edu/pubs/2006/journal/Diamond2006%20-%20Hypnosis%20stroke%20case%20studies.pdf


More Evidence of Increasing Medical Use of Hypnosis

In addition to the studies described above, there are many other examples of the increasing use of hypnosis for medical issues. Here are just a few examples:

In 2015, it was reported that surgeons at the Institute Curie in Paris did more than 70 cancer operations using just hypnosis and a local anesthetic – often in cases where use of a general anesthetic would be risky (like when the patient had heart or breathing problems) or where the patient needed to recover quickly.
http://www.connexionfrance.com/Hypnosis-cancer-operation-Paris-Institut-Curie-16619-view-article.html

In 2016, it was reported that the burns unit of the Lausanne University Hospital in Lausanne, Switzerland, uses hypnosis on a daily basis and that hypnosis is offered to all patients. Two nurses in the Intensive Care Unit only do hypnosis. A study has shown that the hypnosis reduces anxiety, the use of drugs, the overall need for anesthetics and, on average, reduces the time spent by patients in intensive care by five days.
http://www.smh.com.au/national/health/impact-journalism-day-healing-powers-of-hypnosis-promoted-by-swiss-20160609-gpfkpd.html
http://www.thevocal.com.au/switzerland-hypnosis/

The website of The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center was updated in 2015 to include information on “Using hypnosis to cope with cancer” and how “Hypnosis can help you feel better mentally and emotionally.”
https://www.mdanderson.org/publications/cancerwise/2015/09/using-hypnosis-to-cope-with-cancer.html

The University of California San Diego Moore’s Cancer Center now offers hospitalized cancer patients hypnotherapy.
https://health.ucsd.edu/specialties/cancer/resources/support/Pages/default.aspx

Harvard Medical School asked a hypnotist to speak to a class of third year medical students interested in the use of hypnosis in the medical community.
http://aplushypnosis.com/hypnosis-at-harvard-medical-school/

In 2015, the Providence Saint Joseph Medical Center in Burbank CA announced the creation of a job opening for a hypnotherapist to work with cancer patients in its Integrative Medicine Clinic and also at the Disney Family Cancer Center.
http://jobs.climber.com/jobs/Healthcare-Medical/Burbank-CA-91506/Hypnotherapist-Integrative-Medicine-Per-Diem-Days-/140915158

The University of California San Diego hired a full time hypnotherapist in 2013 to assist with and develop a hypnotherapy program for its Maternal Mental Health Clinic, to provide hypnotherapy services for its patients, and to educate the university staff and faculty about hypnotherapy.
http://http://scholarshipdb.net/scholarships-in-United-States/67863-Hypnotherapist-University-Of-California-San-Diego=gbpiesER4xGUEgAlkGUTnw.html


New Studies Currently in Progress

Because of the increased interest in hypnosis for medical issues, many new studies on this topic are currently in progress or recruiting participants. Here is a list of some of those (https://clinicaltrials.gov/):

  • Hypnosis to Perform Awake Intubation
  • Hypnosis to Improve Sleep In Menopause
  • Hypnosis, Self-hypnosis and Weight Loss in Obese Patients
  • Assessment of the Contribution of Hypnosis in the Tolerance of the Bronchoscopy
  • DVD-Based Training Program in Self-Hypnosis for Children (program for parents to use with their children to teach self-hypnosis techniques for inducing relaxation and hypnotic analgesia; these relaxation techniques can be employed to manage anticipatory anxiety, distress, and pain during an invasive medical procedure)
  • Hypnosis as a Potentiation Technique for the Interventional Treatment of Chronic Lumbar Pain
  • Hypnosis for Pain and Itch Following Burn Injuries
  • Conversational Hypnosis in Women Undergoing Imaging for Breast Cancer
  • Hypnotherapy in Treating Chronic Pain in Cancer Survivors
  • Effect of Hypnosis on Dyspnea (shortness of breath)
  • Self-hypnosis in Patients Awaiting Lung Transplantation
  • Pediatric Emergency Suture Care: a Trial Comparing the Analgesic Efficacy of Hypnosis Versus MEOPA
  • Improving Sleep Quality in People With Insomnia Using Hypnosis
  • Brain-Centered Therapy Versus Medication for Urgency Urinary Incontinence: Hypnotherapy Or Pharmacotherapy
  • Hypnosis Efficacy for the Prevention of Anxiety During a Coronary Angiography
  • Randomized Controlled Study of the Efficacy of Hypnosis Versus Relaxation and Control in Neuropathic Pain
  • Hypnotherapy vs. Probiotics in Children With IBS and Functional Abdominal Pain
  • Complementary Therapies (including hypnosis) in Spinal Fusion Patients
  • A Brief Laboratory-Based Hypnosis Session for Pain in Sickle Cell Disease

Hypnosis and Arthritis


arthritis-affected areas osteoarthritis-knee

Arthritis is something known to most people, either through direct experience or knowing a family member or friend who suffers with it, and it can be highly debilitating through loss of mobility and function of joints as well as the pain involved.

My wife and me both have osteoarthritis so this was personally very interesting to read and research. As a result I am working on reducing my own pain and joint inflammation in order to improve the functioning of my hands (in particular both of my thumbs), knee and shoulder.

This paper was oriented to Rheumatoid Arthritis, however, pain and inflammation are constant across all forms of arthritis and my continued self application of hypnosis for this is relieving my pain symptoms and I have an improved mobility and functioning of my thumbs at present.

As always I welcome any comments and feedback from your personal experiences and any ways that you feel I may be able to help you.

Below is a link to a good presentation about arthritis:

https://www.emaze.com/@AIRILLOZ/Arthritis–tahliyah-joyner

Study 1: Hypnosis for Arthritis Symptoms
The effect of hypnosis therapy on the symptoms and disease activity in Rheumatoid Arthritis.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22175264

Results: Results indicate that the hypnosis therapy produced more significant improvements in both the subjective and objective measurements, above relaxation and medication. Improvements were also found to be of clinical significance and became even more significant when patients practised the hypnosis regularly during the follow-up periods.

Notes: The present study aimed to assess the effectiveness of clinical hypnosis on the symptoms and disease activity of Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA). Sixty-six RA patients participated in a controlled group design. Twenty six patients learnt the hypnosis intervention, 20 patients were in a relaxation control group and 20 patients were in a waiting-list control group. During hypnosis, patients developed individual visual imagery aimed at reducing the autoimmune activity underlying the RA and at reducing the symptoms of joint pain, swelling and stiffness. Subjective assessments of symptom severity and body and joint function, using standardised questionnaires and visual analogue scales, were obtained. Objective measures of disease activity via multiple blood samples during the therapy period and at the two follow-ups were also taken. These measurements were of erythrocyte sedimentation rate. C-reactive protein, haemoglobin and leukocyte total numbers.

Psychol Health. 2000 Nov;14(6):1089-104
By: J. R. Horton-Hausknecht, U. Mitzdorf, D. Melchart, Institute of Medical Psychology, Ludwig-Maximilian-University, Goethestr, 31, 80336, Munich, Germany

Hypnosis and Alzheimer’s Disease/Dementia


dementia

incidence-of-alzheimers

I have seen first hand the effects of dementia on my grandmother, and it was horrendous to see the person I knew and loved fade away. In the last few months of her life, the occasions when she recognised me where less and less frequent and it was such a joy when the light was flicked back on and recognition of who I was flooded across her face. It was wonderful for both of us and in those moments she knew what was happening to her and she was completely lucid and aware, despite the tinge of sadness we made the most of these moments when I visited her. I used hypnosis with her to focus her on the many fun memories she had and also to help bring her back out of her delusions and sometimes, these delusions were upsetting for her, so I used hypnosis to distract and re-focus her attention onto positive, happy memories.

This is such a cruel disease that robs people of their identity, personality and soul and is equally traumatic for their families as they watch them fade away and much more research is needed to enable us to provide better treatment and care for those diagnosed.

Dementia-facts

Study 1: Hypnosis Can Improve Seven Aspects of Quality of Life for Individuals with Dementia
Alternative Approaches to Supporting Individuals With Dementia: Enhancing Quality of Life Through Hypnosis
http://dementiatherapyspecialists.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/08/Alzheimers-Care-Today-article.pdf

Results: This pilot study explored the use of hypnosis to influence 7 aspects of quality of life in individuals with dementia: concentration, relaxation, motivation, activities of daily living, immediate memory, memory of significant events, and socialization. The results indicate that hypnosis has a beneficial impact on quality of life on both a short-term and long-term basis. Unlike the other study participants, the participants in the hypnosis group showed improvement in all 7 items – some of which were maintained over a period of time, such as 21 months or more.

The study authors hypothesize that perhaps an individual with dementia is aware of his or her gradual loss of abilities. That awareness leads to increased levels of anxiety and depression – which are known to involve active cognitive processing. Because the individual’s limited cognitive resources are being used up by anxiety and depression, even greater loss of memory, motivation and ability takes place. The authors further hypothesize that hypnosis may decrease an individual with dementia’s anxiety and depression (through positive suggestion and relaxation), which – in turn – may free up otherwise engaged resources so they are available for the individual to use to successfully accomplish cognitive tasks.

Notes: Eighteen participants were recruited from 2 care homes and were randomly allocated into 1 of 3 groups, the hypnosis group (HG), the discussion group (DG), and the treatment-as-usual group (TG). The HG received weekly individual sessions of hypnosis carried out in their single-occupancy bedrooms at their residential or nursing home. Each session lasted approximately 1 hour. Thus, over the 9-month period each HG participant received a total of 36 hours of hypnosis in 36 sessions. Prior to the first hypnosis session, each participant received 1-hour consultation and interview to customize the terminology used during the hypnosis sessions. This ensured that the language used was familiar and personalized for each participant and to ensure comprehension of suggestions that were to be used.

Participants were also introduced to the process of progressive muscle relaxation. Participants were induced into hypnosis in 3 phases:

(i) eye closure

(ii) progressive muscle relaxation, starting at the scalp and moving progressively down toward the feet

(iii) a permissive induction. Permissive inductions “ask” each participant to allow oneself to become more relaxed. After deepening, the HG participants were given direct suggestions relating to the 7 items described earlier, along with additional “CRC” suggestions (Calmness, Relaxation, and Confidence).

health-alzheimers

Examples of the statements are provided below.

  • At the end of this session, and between now and the next time I see you, you will feel more relaxed and at ease, more motivated to do the things you want to do.
  • You will have clarity of thought; you will be able to concentrate for longer periods of time.
  • You will have fewer concerns and less feelings of anxiousness.
  • Spending time with others will have meaning and you will want to spend time chatting with others.

For each of the 7 items, all participants were rated on a 7-point scale, assessed once at the start of the study period and then at weekly intervals.

Alzheimer’s Care Today 2007; 8(4):321-331
By: Simon Duff, Ph.D., is a chartered forensic psychologist and a trained hypnotherapist, working at the Division of Clinical Psychology, University of Liverpool, and the Mersey Forensic Psychology Service, Liverpool, United Kingdom. Daniel Nightingale, Ph.D., was first trained in social work, then as a registered nurse in learning disabilities before completing a doctorate in both learning disabilities and transitional shock. He is a trained hypnotherapist and head of dementia services at Southern Cross Healthcare, The Alton Centre, Northampton, United Kingdom.

The Positive Physical and Psychological Effects of ProArgi9 Plus: L-Arginine and Nitric Oxide


Proargi9+     Enhance Your Health With Synergy

We’ve known about the health benefits of nitric oxide for a long time, even before scientists were aware of its presence in the human body. Nitroglycerin, a drug that works on nitric oxide pathways, was adopted as a medical therapy for angina and high blood pressure in the 1880s, yet another century passed before we really understood how and why it worked.

The discovery of nitric oxide and its biological activities was so astounding that the 1998 Nobel Prize was awarded to the three pharmacologists who identified and furthered our understanding of this dynamic molecule and turned our understanding of the cause of cardiovascular disease upside down. Nitric Oxide performs a number of different tasks and has numerous benefits and I also want to explain how you can increase its production to improve numerous aspects of your own health.

Nitric Oxide’s Effects and Benefits
Nitric oxide is a key signalling molecule throughout the human body, without it we would die. It is produced by the endothelial cells lining the arteries, it penetrates the underlying smooth muscles and acts as a potent vasodilator that relaxes the arteries. Therefore, nitric oxide plays a critical role in blood pressure and overall circulation. It also keeps the endothelium in shape by curbing inflammation and oxidative stress.

Unfortunately, atherosclerosis, the underlying cause of heart disease and other vascular disorders, is characterised by endothelial dysfunction and a limited capacity to produce nitric oxide. It’s a vicious cycle. Diseased arteries can’t generate enough protective nitric oxide, and low nitric oxide levels set the stage for further damage, hypertension, and increased risk of cardiac events.

This explains why nitroglycerin is such an effective therapy for angina. It triggers nitric oxide production, which dilates narrowed coronary arteries, improving circulation and delivering much-needed oxygen to the heart muscle. Restoring nitric oxide availability also lowers blood pressure and helps treat erectile dysfunction. In fact, the popular erectile dysfunction drugs Viagra, Cialis, and Levitra work on nitric oxide pathways to increase blood flow to the penis and substantially improve erections.

How Nitric Oxide Helps
Additionally, this essential compound is generated in the brain, where it’s involved in neurotransmission. That’s why nitric oxide benefits also include protection against dementia and other neurodegenerative disorders. Nitric oxide is synthesised in the white blood cells as well and is used as a weapon against bacteria, fungi, parasites, and aberrant cancer cells.

In the gastrointestinal tract, it relaxes smooth muscle cells and helps regulate intestinal peristalsis and the secretion of mucus and gastric acid. Nitric oxide is also involved in insulin signalling, bone remodelling, respiratory function, ATP (energy) utilisation, and mitochondrial biogenesis, or the creation of new cellular “energy factories.” Since there are so many benefits of nitric oxide, it makes sense for all of us to boost our production of this essential compound.

Original source: http://www.drwhitaker.com/boost-nitric-oxide-levels-to-improve-health/

Goodbye Heart Disease, Diabetes and Strokes

The nitric oxide derived from L-Arginine is both directly and indirectly implicated in practically every cellular response and health condition imaginable, from the cardiovascular system to the immune system, and hormone function to nerve function. Although this is not an exhaustive list of possible applications for this amino acid, the following are the primary scientifically backed reasons that anyone, even healthy people, must consider adding L-Arginine to their health and wellness routine.

From a personal perspective, I have been taking ProArgi9 Plus for almost three years now and  began taking it as I had recently been diagnosed with a minor heart condition. Now almost three years on I hardly notice it at all, whereas previously it was very evident at numerous points through the day as my heart randomly tried to escape through my chest and caused shortness of breath and dizziness.

Also my father, who is now 70, has had heart trouble and been prescribed Warfarin etc and Statins. After about 12 months consistently taking ProArgi9 Plus he no longer requires Warfarin and has stopped taking the Statins. In combination with smaller food portions, healthier food, regular exercise of 20-30 minutes max, 5 times per week he is in better shape than he has been in quite a few years.

Proargi9+ & PDR

I am optimistic that the GMC will some day recognise the validity and efficacy of ProArgi9 Plus as has the AMA, because in the USA ProArgi9 Plus is the only non-pharmaceutical health supplement to be included in the Physicians Desk Reference (PDR) and GP’s there can prescribe it to their patients

  1. ProArgi9 Plus is one thousand times more powerful than any naturally occurring antioxidant in the body. L-Arginine`s antioxidant properties support various body systems and may protect against heart disease, stroke, cancer, and diabetes, as well as slowing premature ageing. [1, 2 ]
  2. ProArgi9 Plus offers wide-ranging cardiovascular support, including controlling blood pressure [3, 4] and plaque formation. Nitric oxide keeps arteries relaxed and pliable for normal blood pressure, preventing hypertension and angina. [5]
  3. ProArgi9 Plus enhances memory, [6] particularly long-term memory, and may help to reverse the effects of dementia and Alzheimer’s disease. [7]
  4. ProArgi9 Plus boosts human growth hormone (HGH) production, which has anti-ageing properties. [8]
  5. ProArgi9 Plus enhances communication of messenger cells between nerves and the brain. [9]
  6. ProArgi9 Plus may help improve immune function [10] and fight bacterial infections. [11]
  7. ProArgi9 Plus may help in the treatment and prevention of diabetes since many disease complications, including poor circulation and blindness, are vascular in nature. L-Arginine is also found to regulate insulin secretion in the pancreas. [12,13]
  8. ProArgi9 Plus may inhibit the division and proliferation of cancer cells. [14,15]
  9. ProArgi9 Plus helps with cholesterol control by lowering serum and LDL cholesterol levels. [16]
  10. ProArgi9 Plus enhances male sexual performance by treating vascular erectile dysfunction (ED). [17]
  11. ProArgi9 Plus anticoagulant abilities reduce clotting to lower heart attack and stroke risk. [18]
  12. ProArgi9 Plus reduces pregnancy-related hypertension, a risk factor for both the expecting mother and the unborn child. [19]
  13. ProArgi9 Plus is useful in the treatment of asthma by opening pulmonary pathways for easier breathing and the treatment of lung disorders. [20, 21]
  14. ProArgi9 Plus relaxes hypertonic sphincter muscles, preventing and healing haemorrhoids. [22]
  15. ProArgi9 Plus boosts lean muscle mass and preserves bone density by encouraging HGH production, [23] which also leads to a reduction in fatty tissue. Because of these properties, it may be useful in weight management and strength training.
  16. ProArgi9 Plus can help offset cardiovascular and lung damage caused by tobacco use,[24] since nitric oxide levels in smokers are less than half of those found in nonsmokers. [25]
  17. ProArgi9 Plus helps to accelerate wound healing [26] and post-surgery recovery. [27] Research has shown it is useful in treating burn wounds [28] and stimulates wound healing in the elderly. [29]
  18. ProArgi9 Plus may be useful in enhancing athletic performance due to its ability to boost exercise tolerance, [30] its beneficial effect on the lungs, and its effect on HGH levels. Which helps with building lean muscle tissue.
  19. ProArgi9 Plus may be used to improve the function of the prostate. [31]
  20. ProArgi9 Plus may prevent and possibly reverse the effects of osteoporosis by positively affecting bone mass. [32]
  21. ProArgi9 Plus has been used in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome [33} and to reduce the occurrence of ulcers, particularly stress-related, without affecting gastric acid production. [34,35]
  22. ProArgi9 Plus may improve renal function and slow the progression of renal disease and age-related chronic renal failure. [36,37] Arginine`s protective effect on the kidneys may also benefit those with diabetes.

Source References:

  1. Kochupurackal P, et al. Nitric oxide: an antioxidant and neuro-protector. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 2002; 962:389-401.
  2. Kumar CA, Das UN. Lipid peroxides, antioxidants and nitric oxide in patients with pre-eclampsia and essential hypertension. Med Sci-Monitor. 2000 Sep-Oct; 6(5):901-7.
  3. Brown, M.D., Dengel, D.R., Supiano, M.A. Nitric Oxide Biomarkers are Associated with the Blood Pressure-Lowering Effects of Dietary Sodium Restriction in Older Hypertensives. Circulation (Abstract I). 1997; 96:I-539.
  4. Rosano, G.M.C., Tanina, G., Cerquetani, E., Leonardo, F., Pelliccia, F., Bonfigli, B., and Chierchia, F.L. L-arginine Improves Endothelial Function in Newly Diagnosed Hypertensives. The Journal of the American College of Cardiology (Supplement A). 1998; 31:262a
  5. Moncada, F., Palmer, R.M.J., Higgs, E.A. The Discovery of Nitric Oxide as the Endogenous Nitro vasodilator. Hypertension. 1988; 12:365-72.
  6. Pautler EL. The possible role and treatment of deficient microcirculation regulation in age-associated memory impairment. Med Hypotheses. 1994 Jun; 42(6):363-6.
  7. Tarkowski E, et al. Intrathecal release of nitric oxide in Alzheimer’s disease and vascular dementia. Dement Geriatric Cogn Disord. 2000 Nov-Dec; 11(6):322-6.
  8. Ghigo E, Arvat E, Gianotti L, et al. Hypothalamic growth hormone-insulin-like growth facto-1 axis across the human life span. J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab.2000; 13 Suppl 6:1493-502.
  9. Fried R, Merrell WC. The Arginine Solution. New York, NY. Warner Books, 1999.
  10. Efron D, Barbul A. Role of arginine in immuno-nutrition. J Gastroentol. 2000; 35 Suppl 12:20-3..
  11. Korting GE, Smith SD, Wheeler MA, Weiss RM, Foster HE. A randomized double-blind study of oral L-arginine for treatment of interstitial cystitis. J Urol. 1999 Feb; 161(2):558-65.
  12. Piatti PM, Monti LD, Valsecchi G, et al. Long term oral L-arginine administration improves peripheral and hepatic insulin sensitivity in type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2001 May; 24(5):875-80.
  13. Mohan IK, Cas UN. Effects of L-arginine-nitric oxide system on chemical induced diabetes mellitus. Free Radic Biol Med. 1998 Nov 1; 25(7):757-65.
  14. Heys SD, et al. Dietary supplementation with L-arginine: Modulation of tumour infiltrating lymphocytes in patients with colorectal cancer. Br J Surg. 1997 Feb; 84(2):238-41.
  15. Brittenden J, et al. Dietary supplementation with L-arginine in patients with breast cancer (> 4cm.) receiving multi-modality treatment: report of a feasibility study. Br J Cancer. 1994 May; 69(5):918-21.
  16. Khedara A, Kawai Y Kayashita J Kato N. Feeding rats the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, L-N(omega) nitroarginine, elevates serum triglycerides and cholesterol and lowers hepatic fatty acid oxidation. J Nutr. 1996 Oct; 126(10):2563-7.
  17. Chen J, Wollman Y, Chernichovsky T, et al. Effect of high dose nitric oxide donor L-arginine in men with organic erectile dysfunction. BJU Int. 1999 Feb; 83(3):269-73.
  18. Wolf A, et al. Dietary L-arginine supplementation normalises platelet aggregation in hypercholesterolemic humans. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1997 Mar 1; 29(3):479.
  19. Podjarny, E., et al. Pregnancy-induced hypertension in rats with adriamycin nephropathy is associated with inadequate production of nitric oxide. Hypertension. 1997; 29:986-991.
  20. De Gouw HW, Verbruggen MB, Twiss IM, Sterk PJ. Effect of oral L-arginine on airway hyper-responsiveness to histamine in asthma. Thorax. 1999 Nov; 54(11):1033-5.
  21. De Gouw HW, Marshall-Partridge SJ, et al. Role of nitric oxide in the airway response to exercise in healthy and asthmatic subjects. J Appl Physiol. 2001 Feb; 90(2):586-92.
  22. Fried R, Merrell WC. The Arginine Solution. New York, New York. Warner Books, 1999. pp 4-5.
  23. Stevens BR, Godfrey MD, Kaminski TW, Braith RW. High intensity dynamic human muscle performance enhanced by a metabolic intervention. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2000 Dec; 32(12):2102-8.
  24. Heitzer, T., Just, H., and Munzell, T. Antioxidant Vitamin C Improves Endothelium Function in Chronic Smokers. Circulation. 1996; 94:9.
  25. Zeiher, A.M., Schachinger, V., and Minners, J. Long-Term Cigarette Smoking Impairs Endothelium-Dependent Coronary Arterial Vasodilator Function. Circulation. 1995; 92:1094-1100.
  26. Barbul A, et al. Arginine enhances wound healing and lymphocyte immune responses in humans. Surgery. 1990 Aug; 108(2):331-6; discussion 336-7.
  27. Braga M, Gianotti L Raedelli G, et al. Perioperative immuno-nutrition in patients undergoing cancer surgery: results of a randomised double-blind phase 3 trial. Arch Surg. 1999 Apr; 134(4):428-33.
  28. De-Souza DA, Greene LJ. Pharmacological nutrition after burn injury. J of Nutri. 1998 May; 128(5):797-803.
  29. Kirk SJ, et al Arginine stimulates wound healing and immune function in elderly humans. Surgery. 1993 Aug; 114(2):155-9; discussion 160.
  30. Bednarz B, Wolk R, Chamiec T, et al. Effects of oral L-arginine supplementation on exercised induced QT dispersion and exercise tolerance in stable anginapectoris. Int J Cardiol. 2000 Sep 15; 75(2-3): 205-10.
  31. Aikawa K, Yokota T, et al. Endogenous nitric oxide-mediated relaxation and nitrinergic innervation in the rabbit prostate: the change with aging. Prostate. 2001 Jun 15; 48(1):40-6.
  32. Fini M, et al. Effect of l-lysine and L-arginine on primary osteoblast cultures from normal and osteopenic rats. Biomed Pharmacother. 2001 May; 55(4):213-21.
  33. Sahin AS, Atalik KE, Gunel E, Dogan N. Nonadrenergic, noncholinergic responses of the human colon smooth muscle and the role of K+channels in these responses. Methods Find Exp Clin Pharmacol. 2001 Jan-Feb; 23(1):13-7.
  34. Ohta Y, Nishida K., Protective effect of l-arginine against stress-induced gastric mucosal lesions in rats and its relation to nitric acid-mediated inhibition of neutrophil infiltration. Pharmacal Res. 2001 Jun; 43(6):535-41.
  35. Khattab MM, Gad MZ, Abdallah D. Protective role of nitric oxide in indo- methacin- induced gastric ulceration by a mechanism independent of gastric acid secretion. Pharmacol Res. 2001 May; 43(5):463-7.
  36. De Nicola L, Bellizzi V, Minutolo R, et al. Randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled study of arginine supplementation in chronic renal failure. Kidney Int. 1999 Aug; 56(2):674-84.
  37. Reckelhoff JF, et al. Long-term dietary supplementation with L-arginine prevents age related reduction in renal function. Am J Physiol. 1997 Jun; 272(6 Pt 2):1768-74.

Addictions and Hypnosis


Addiction-300x232

This is a subject that is highly relevant to my work at the moment as I am involved in a pilot project in Aberdeenshire working with drug and alcohol addiction, so I have been re-reading these research papers again myself. There are many levels to addiction and also influence from and transference from other presenting issues in an addicts lifestyle that can complicate the recovery process.

So What is the difference between a habit and an addiction?

Addiction – there is a psychological/physical component; the person is unable to control the aspects of the addiction without help because of the mental or physical conditions involved.

Medical News Today wrote a great article about addiction.

People with an addiction do not have control over what they are doing, taking or using. Their addiction may reach a point at which it is harmful. Addictions do not only include physical things we consume, such as drugs or alcohol, but may include virtually anything, such abstract things as gambling to seemingly harmless products, such as chocolate – in other words, addiction may refer to a substance dependence (e.g. drug addiction) or behavioral addiction (e.g. gambling addiction).
http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/info/addiction/

Habit – it is done by choice. The person with the habit can choose to stop, and will subsequently stop successfully if they want to. The psychological/physical component is not an issue as it is with an addiction.

This is a fascinating topic that I hope you will again find interesting reading in terms of the application of and the success in the use of hypnosis. 

Study 1: Hypnosis and Cocaine
Hypnosis For Cocaine Addiction Documented Case Study
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8259763

Notes: Hypnosis was successfully used to overcome a $500 (five grams) per day cocaine addiction. The subject was a female in her twenties. After approximately 8 months of addiction, she decided to use hypnosis in an attempt to overcome the addiction itself. Over the next 4 months, she used hypnosis three times a day and at the end of this period, her addiction was broken, and she has been drug free for the past 9 years. Hypnosis was the only intervention, and no support network of any kind was available.

American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 1993 Oct;36(2):120-3
By: G. W. Handley, Ohio State University, Lima, OH USA 45804

Study 2: Hypnosis and Methadone
A comparative study of hypnotherapy and psychotherapy in the treatment of methadone addicts.
http://www.hypnosis-review-quarterly.com/drug-addiction-hypnosis-studies.html
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6486078

Notes: Significant differences were found on all measures. The experimental group had significantly less discomfort and illicit drug use, and a significantly greater amount of cessation. At six month follow up, 94% of the subjects in the experimental group who had achieved cessation remained narcotic free.

American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 1984; 26(4): 273-9
By: A. J. Manganiello

Study 3: Hypnosis and Marijuana, Cocaine and Alcohol
Intensive Therapy: Utilizing Hypnosis in the Treatment of Substance Abuse Disorders.
http://bscw.rediris.es/pub/bscw.cgi/d4584094/Potter-Intensive_therapy_Utilizing_hypnosis_substance_abuse_disorders.pdf

Results: All subjects were given 20 daily hypnosis sessions and then followed up a year later where it was found that using hypnosis in this fashion led to a 77% success rate.

Notes: This paper reports on 18 cases over a 7-year period where hypnosis was used to treat a variety of addictions. Fifteen cases involved alcohol, two involved cocaine and one involved marijuana. All subjects were given 20 daily hypnosis sessions and then followed up a year later where it was found that using hypnosis in this fashion led to a 77% success rate.
Tools: The following tools and suggestions are given for use in hypnosis;

(A) Direct Suggestion. Direct suggestion can be used for creating a positive expectancy. The therapist can also use direct suggestion to inspire confidence, commitment, motivation, and perseverance in the client to achieve the stated goals, as well as encourage the proper behavioral changes.

(B) Anchors. In hypnosis, anchoring happens when a posthypnotic suggestion is paired to a feeling state. Therefore, when an individual has a craving for the drug, the posthypnotic suggestion is used to bring about the anchored feelings

(C) Metaphors A metaphor used in therapy usually consists of a story that has a short metaphor embedded within. The whole story is not metaphoric, but captures the client’s attention so the metaphoric message can be subconsciously embedded. For example, Wallas’s (1985) “The Boy Who Lost His Way.” All metaphors are altered, paraphrased and structured to fit the individual’s situation in order to make a therapeutic impact. For example, for female clients “the boy” in the metaphor becomes a girl.

(D) Reframes. There may be many issues that arise while working with addictions that can be reframed. For example, the way a person views New Year’s Eve; or what it means to go fishing or boating. Any situation in which the client has consumed alcohol or used their drug of choice can be reframed to exclude the substance.

(E) Affect Bridge. The affect bridge (Watkins, 1971) is used with clients who have particular emotions associated with the use of drugs. By following the emotion through the affect bridge to the first time the client felt that particular emotion before using the drug, the client can become more aware of and break the connection with that emotion and the drug.

(F) Self-hypnosis Self-hypnosis is routinely taught to all clients. It is left up to the clients as to how they use it.

American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, Jul 2004 vol.47(1) :21-28
By: G. Potter

Study 4: Self-Hypnosis for Drug and Alcohol Abuse
Self-Hypnosis Relapse Prevention Training With Chronic Drug/Alcohol Users: Effects on Self-Esteem, Affect. and Relapse.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15190730

Results: While the rate of relapse for all four groups was roughly the same (13%), those who were taught self-hypnosis and who listened to self-hypnosis recordings at home 3 to 5 times a week were more serene, had higher levels of self-esteem, and had greater control over anger and impulsive behavior.

Notes: This study recruited 261 veterans who were admitted into a residential program for substance abuse. The aim was to find out if self-hypnosis could help chronic abusers of drugs and alcohol improve their sense of self-esteem, control their emotions and prevent relapses. Participants were broken into four groups and were assessed before and after they entered the program and then again 7 weeks later.

American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis 2004 Apr;46(4):281-97
By: R. J. Pekala, R. Maurer, V. K. Kumar, N. C. Elliott, E. Masten, E. Moon, M. Salinger, Coatesville VA Medical Center, Coatesville, PA 19320-2096, USA

Study 5: Case Study – Hypnosis for Chemical Dependency (and future related Imagery)
Refraining of an Addiction via Hypnotherapy: A Case Presentation
http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/00029157.1991.10402944#preview

Notes: “A chemically dependent man was treated using hypnotherapy and related psychotherapeutic techniques The majority of the sessions focused on age regressing the patient to events correlating to drug and alcohol abuse. During these events I introduced myself via hypnosis as “the voice from the future” to redefine the events and extract the useful learnings. With a new-found positive self-image, the patient was hypnotically age progressed to review future scenes. In each scene he successfully abstained from drug and alcohol use. The patient remained drug and alcohol free during treatment and the 6-month and one-year follow-ups.”

American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, Volume 33, Issue 4, 1991, pages 263-271
By: David J. Orman

Study 6: Hypnosis and Heroin
The use of hypnosis with an injecting heroin user: brief clinical description of a single case
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/ch.69/abstract

Notes: This paper describes the use of hypnosis with an injecting heroin user. This client was finding it very difficult to keep to his methadone prescription and was frequently using heroin ‘on top’. He received three sessions of hypnosis in order to facilitate relaxation and visualization, and resolution of ambivalence concerning his drug use. The results suggest the client has responded well to treatment. Details both of the client and of the three hypnosis sessions are given and the outcome is discussed.

Contemporary Hypnosis, Volume 13, Issue 3, pages 198-201, October 1996
By: Bill Drysdale, Clinical Psychologist, Barnet Drug and Alcohol Service, Woodlands, Colindale Hospital, Colindale Avenue, London, NW9 SHG

Addiction-CyclesAdditional References:

http://www.mentalhealthy.co.uk/addiction

https://www.psychologytoday.com/basics/addiction

http://www.actiononaddiction.org.uk/home.aspx

http://www.bps.org.uk/search/apachesolr_search/Addiction

A Look At the Link Between PTSD and Substance Abuse


Post Traumatic Stress is an extremely emotionally debilitating state resulting in intense anxiety, intrusive memories and vivid flashbacks that interfere with daily life.

Often individuals with Post Traumatic Stress turn to drugs and/or alcohol as a way to numb their emotional and psychological pain or to gain some measure of control in their lives. Unfortunately, chronic substance abuse creates a complicated Dual Diagnosis through the co-existence of a serious psychiatric disorder and an addictive disorder. Recovering from this Dual Diagnosis requires a careful exploration of the causes of Post Traumatic Stress, combined with treatment for drug or alcohol addiction.

What Is Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder?

PTSD is a condition in which an individual experiences extremely high levels of stress and/or anxiety after witnessing or being involved in a traumatic event in which physical or psychological trauma that leaves the individual feeling powerless and out of control can lead to PTSD. The most common causes of the condition include:
• Military combat
• Violent assault
• Natural disasters
• Sexual assault
• Childhood abuse

The nightmares and flashbacks experienced with PTSD tend to be based around incidents that have never been fully resolved in the individual’s psyche. For example, a soldier who survived an ambush and his friends and colleagues died may well have flashbacks related to that incident as a way to work through unresolved guilt, anger and fear. A child who felt powerless while being sexually abused by an older relative might develop and grow up living with constant intrusive feelings of helplessness, guilt and revenge.
In women, sexual abuse is one of the most common causes of PTSD and addiction. Combat is another common reason for PTSD, especially in men and this will only continue to increase as a result of Iraq and Afghanistan. In Vietnam veterans seeking treatment for PTSD, between 60 and 80 percent also require treatment for substance abuse and in the UK veterans of the Falklands and Northern Ireland are now displaying signs and symptoms of PTSD, with a growing number living homeless and committing suicide. Many are struggling with alcohol and drug addictions that complicate their situation further. Veterans of WWII never received any form of treatment and still suffer 70 years on.

Symptoms of PTSD include nightmares, flashbacks, avoidance of situations, thoughts and anything related to the event, severe anxiety, sleeplessness, aggressive behaviour and often severe and aggressive mood swings. These symptoms can strike the individual at any time, mainly when that person is reminded of the events in question and this doesn’t have to be consciously reminded.

People who meet the diagnostic criteria for PTSD and substance abuse often experience other serious disorders, such as:

  • Depression
  • Mood disorders
  • Panic/anxiety attacks
  • Attention deficit disorder
  • Chronic pain
  • Chronic illness such as diabetes, liver disease or high blood pressure

The symptoms of PTSD can be divided into three main categories:

  • re-experiencing the traumatic incident
  • avoiding experiences that evoke memories of the incident
  • symptoms of hyper-arousal, such as irritability, anger or extreme anxiety. People who experience these symptoms for at least one month can potentially be diagnosed with PTSD. Alcoholism and drug abuse fall into the category of avoidance symptoms, as the person may use these substances to avoid intrusive/traumatic memories or to numb fear.

When alcohol or drugs are used to cope with PTSD symptoms, the symptoms become more severe. As a central nervous system depressant, alcohol worsens depression and anxiety and disrupts normal sleep patterns. Under the influence of alcohol, someone with PTSD is more likely to engage in risk-taking behaviour, such as driving under the influence, or to become aggressive and/or violent towards other people.

This is a significant reason why PTSD and substance abuse often lead to legal problems, incarceration, poverty, broken homes and chronic unemployment. Getting the right treatment for this Dual Diagnosis early on can make the difference between an individual leading a satisfying, healthy life, or, losing their relationship, their job, home etc.

PTSD and Addiction
Symptoms or PTSD can be extremely real, vivid and distressing and because they place such a huge amount of stress on the person, many people with PTSD feel unable to cope and turn to drugs or alcohol as a means of escaping a distressing, altered reality. Self-medication has led to very high percentages of PTSD suffers with alcohol dependence (over 50 percent) and drug dependence (over 30 percent).

A large part of the cycle is the endorphin withdrawal process, which plays a large part in the use of alcohol or drugs to control the symptoms of PTSD. When a person experiences a traumatic event, their brain produces endorphins — neurotransmitters that reduce pain and create a sense of well-being — as a way of coping with the stress of the experience. When that experience is over, their body experiences an endorphin withdrawal, which is very similar and has the same symptoms as the withdrawal from drugs or alcohol:
• Anxiety
• Depression
• Emotional distress
• Physical pain
• Increased cravings for alcohol or drugs

According to Alcohol Research & Health, many with PTSD will turn to alcohol as a means of replacing the feelings brought on by the brain’s naturally produced endorphins. However, the positive effects of alcohol are only temporary.

With an increased use of alcohol, the person can become chemically dependent on the drug and as such will need more alcohol or drugs to continue to produce those numbing effects that temporarily relieve their symptoms. Eventually, dependence can turn into addiction, which is characterised by compulsive use of the substance, tolerance to the drug and an insistence on abusing the drug in spite of its devastating effects. The use of alcohol to numb PTSD symptoms leads to a vicious cycle. Drinking alcohol worsens the fear and anxiety of PTSD, which leads to the release of endorphins. As the effects of the endorphins subside, the individual needs more alcohol to escape the nightmares and flashbacks of PTSD. Anti-addiction medications like naltrexone, an opioid antagonist, can block the positive effects of alcohol, breaking this destructive cycle. Naltrexone, buprenorphine, acamprosate and other anti-addiction drugs can be used in the treatment of PTSD and substance abuse to reduce the overwhelming cravings that lead to relapse.
Hypnosis has also proven highly effective in the treatment of PTSD in enabling a person to relax, calm their body and mind, remove cravings, strengthen ego and build confidence, as well as deal with traumatic memories.

Finding Specialised Treatment

Recovering from a Dual Diagnosis of PTSD and an addictive disorder demands intensive support from psychiatric and/or psychological professionals, family members and peers. People who are struggling with PTSD and a substance use disorder can be reluctant to seek treatment or even admit that they need it in the first instance. Many who experience PTSD live with intense guilt and shame caused as a result of the traumatic event and their addictive behaviour may be adding to their guilt, making it even harder to reach out and ask for help.

Once they enter a treatment programme, they may have trouble finding the motivation to use their recovery resources at their disposal unless they have support and encouragement from an integrated treatment team.

Those with a Dual Diagnosis such as PTSD and drug addiction need to work with mental health professionals and addiction experts who understand their special needs. Conventional rehab facilities are likely to be ill equipped to deal with the intense psychological problems brought on by PTSD and equally, a psychiatric facility may not have the counselling and detox programmes available that the individual needs in order to successfully overcome the addiction. What the Dual Diagnosis patient needs is integrated care, where recovery resources are centralised in a single facility, and all the professionals on the treatment team have dealt extensively with Dual Diagnoses in the past.

An integrated treatment plan for PTSD and substance abuse needs to include:

  • Individual psychotherapy/hypnotherapy to teach the client how to recognise and deal with their triggers that lead them towards substance abuse
  • Counselling sessions with other clients struggling with PTSD and substance abuse/addictive disorder
  • Couples/Family therapy and counselling to help strengthen and rebuild relationships and educate family members about the condition and how they can help
  • Help clients build their own support network outside of therapy
  • Discuss medication options as a last resort to get them through the initial early stages if their condition and symptoms are severe

Sources:

http://www.hawaii.edu/hivandaids/The%20Role%20of%20Uncontrollable%20Trauma%20in%20the%20Development%20of%20PTSD%20and%20Alcohol%20Addiction.pdf

http://www.dualdiagnosis.org/post-traumatic-stress-disorder-and-addiction/

http://www.bhevolution.org/public/perspectices_201203.page

http://www.bellwood.ca/programs/post-traumatic-stress/

http://www.recoveryconnection.org/addiction-post-traumatic-stress-disorder-treatment/

http://healthland.time.com/2012/08/15/how-ptsd-and-addiction-can-be-safely-treated-together/

http://alcoholrehab.com/drug-addiction/ptsd-substance-abuse/

http://www.ptsd.va.gov/public/problems/ptsd_substance_abuse_veterans.asp

http://www.recoveryranch.com/articles/addiction-research/post-traumatic-stress-disorder-addiction-ptsd/

http://gsappweb.rutgers.edu/cstudents/readings/Summer/Heffernan_WorkingTrauma/brown_substance.pdf

http://www.combatstress.org.uk/medical-professionals/academic-publications/journal-publications/

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4124907/

http://www.helpguide.org/articles/ptsd-trauma/post-traumatic-stress-disorder.htm

http://search.proquest.com/openview/ebb0d5f3fc85e2e1fbff439384205a5d/1?pq-origsite=gscholar

http://ajp.psychiatryonline.org/doi/abs/10.1176/ajp.153.3.369?journalCode=ajp

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1521-0391.1997.tb00408.x/abstract

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/027273589290125R

http://ajp.psychiatryonline.org/doi/full/10.1176/appi.ajp.158.8.1184

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/jts.2490060409/abstract

http://www.nejm.org/doi/pdf/10.1056/NEJM198712243172604

http://ajp.psychiatryonline.org/doi/abs/10.1176/ajp.149.5.664

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0924977X03001779

http://psycnet.apa.org/books/10460/

http://archpsyc.jamanetwork.com/article.aspx?articleid=207281

http://journals.lww.com/jonmd/Abstract/1995/03000/Childhood_Trauma_and_Posttraumatic_Stress_Disorder.8.aspx

https://books.google.co.uk/books?hl=en&lr=&id=MFyEg007YEIC&oi=fnd&pg=PR1&dq=Combat+Stress+%2B+PTSD+%2B+Substance+Addiction&ots=ctPJqC2rSF&sig=iJPUmuMzIVOdZqBDMFX13PmKrvs#v=onepage&q=Combat%20Stress%20%2B%20PTSD%20%2B%20Substance%20Addiction&f=false

http://archpsyc.jamanetwork.com/article.aspx?articleid=495250

What’s the Deal With Hypnotherapy?


Lets face it, none of us are perfect and being brutally honest, no one is. Just like me, I am sure that there are things you know you could change, small tweaks that might make your life more satisfying, more rewarding and fulfilling.

Perhaps changing a bad habit for a useful new one, overcoming a long-standing phobia, or maybe finding the right motivators to change what you eat so that you can lose that excess fat and keep it off.

We all have something we’d like to change or improve, but how do you do it? How can you break what might be the habit of a lifetime, or find the strength to resist temptation?
And even more importantly, how do you make sure your new habit/behaviour sticks?

If you’ve ever tried to do it on your own, you’ll know it’s no easy feat and as difficult as it seems, it’s not impossible, especially when you get the right kind of help.

What Is Hypnotherapy?
Look at the word “hypnotherapy” and you’ll see it’s actually a combination of two words.
Hypnosis – and therapy.In a nutshell it’s a complementary therapy that utilities the power of hypnosis by instilling positive suggestions into your unconscious mind.

With the right suggestions, it’s possible to alter:
The way you think
The way you feel
The way you behave

And this is why hypnotherapy is such a potent tool for change, because when you can change your thoughts, your feelings, and your behaviours – you can move mountains, you can overcome any obstacle that blocks your way, because it enables you to tackle things that you once thought impossible. Plus, when used by a well trained, certified professional, hypnotherapy can help with every one of the following:
Addictions
Childbirth
Obsessions
Compulsions
Anger management
Depression
Eating disorders
Confidence building
Self-esteem boosting
Anxiety relief
Exam nerves
Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS)
Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)
Fears and phobias
Pain management
Sexual issues
Relaxation
Stuttering
Tinnitus
Sleep disorders
Stress reduction
Weight loss

Now that’s quite a list, so the next question is, how can it be so effective? How can it deal with ALL of those things? The answer is simple.

Hypnotherapy gets to the bottom of whatever the issue is. It bypasses your critical conscious mind and connects you with your unconscious. It changes your thoughts, feelings, and behaviours from the inside out. This means it tackles the root cause of the problem, not just the symptoms, and deals with it. And to top it off, it often does that better than almost any other form of therapy.

Hypnotherapy Comes Out On Top

Dr. Alfred A. Barrios conducted a survey of psychotherapy literature. He discovered that:
93% of clients recover after 6 sessions of hypnotherapy
72% of clients recover after 22 sessions of behavioural therapy
38% of clients recover after 600 sessions of psychoanalysis

That blew my mind when I first read that, it’s quite amazing. Not only does hypnotherapy work faster – 6 sessions compared to 22 or more – but it works for a larger percentage of people.

It’s four times faster than behavioural therapy and a massive 100 times faster than psychoanalysis.

That might explain why the practice has been certified worldwide as an alternative way to manage so many conditions:
In 1996, the Australian Hypnotherapists’ Association introduced a peer-group accreditation system for professional Australian hypnotherapists.
In the UK, the Department for Education and Skills developed National Occupational Standards for hypnotherapy in 2002.
In the USA, hypnotherapy regulation and certification is carried out by the American Council of Hypnotist Examiners (A.C.H.E.). The first state-licensed hypnotherapy center was the Hypnotism Training Institute of Los Angeles, licensed way back in 1976.

So hypnotherapy is not just useful. It’s recognised worldwide as a bona fide treatment method for tackling issues in many areas of your life, including:

Mental and emotional health
Physical well-being
Spiritual development
Creativity
Motivation
Business concerns
Goal achievement
And lots more besides.

Now I’m pretty sure you’re wondering, “wait a minute, there other ways to deal with this stuff aren’t there? What about Cognitive Behavioural Therapy, psychoanalysis & NLP?
the people who provide these services need to be qualified and certified too don’t they?
So how come they aren’t as effective as hypnotherapy?

To answer this question, you need to look at how the other three work.

Hypnotherapy, Cognitive Behavioural Therapy, Psychoanalysis & NLP
Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (or CBT) is used to change the way you think and behave, it helps you deal with your problems in a more positive light. It’s commonly used to treat anxiety and depression by giving you practical ways to deal with life on a daily basis. The idea is to break down larger issues into smaller parts so they’re easier to cope with.
This enables you to manage them one at a time and gradually improve the way you feel.
It doesn’t remove the problems, but it gives you valid coping mechanisms so you can learn to manage them more easily.

Psychoanalysis is also widely used to treat anxiety and depression, but with a different approach.
Psychoanalysis was developed by Sigmund Freud and the principle behind psychoanalysis is uncovering repressed emotions and experiences. So while CBT deals with problems in the present, the here and now, psychoanalysis delves into your past and in many cases, your childhood. It attempts to try to find the reasons why you feel anxious or depressed and by letting those repressed emotions come to the surface you can confront them and finally put them to rest.

NLP stands for Neuro-Linguistic Programming.
Neuro refers to your nervous system, the link between your brain and body.
Linguistic refers to the language you use.
Programming refers to learned behaviours and the way you respond to stimuli.
So NLP aims to change your behaviour (your programming) by altering the way your brain responds to what’s going on around you. It uses techniques like anchors and disassociation to achieve this. NLP is particularly useful for breaking habits and overcoming fears, which is great. What’s interesting though, is this, NLP often combines its techniques with hypnosis and self-hypnosis.

CBT has been proven more effective when used in conjunction with hypnotherapy. Even psychoanalysis works better when you’re under hypnosis, because you’re more in touch with your unconscious mind.
Your unconscious mind is where all those memories and conflicts are stored and it seems that no matter which therapy is employed, the end result is the same. When you add a bit of hypnotherapy, you hugely increase your chances of success.

So Why Choose Hypnotherapy?
Let’s be honest here, when it comes to therapy, there are so many choices available today and Hypnotherapy is just one of the options. So why should you choose Hypnotherapy above any other treatment form?

There are at least three very good reasons:
It’s faster than other forms of therapy
It addresses more issues than other forms of therapy
It gets right to the heart of the problem and deals with it directly

During a hypnotherapy session, the therapist starts by talking to you and asking you questions in order to find out what the problem is. This allows them to learn about you and your life and this helps them decide the best way to help you overcome whatever issue you’re having. Once they know that, they’ll move on to hypnosis where they will lead you into a mild trance where your critical conscious mind can just switch off. This is basically a state of heightened awareness where you can access your unconscious and make deep-seated and lasting changes.

When you can do that, the possibilities are endless.
You can:
Find solutions to long-standing problems
Wipe away old limiting beliefs
Turn negative thoughts into positive ones
Develop new and healthier habits
Set realistic and achievable goals
Take active control of your health, your career, your relationships, and your life in general

And like the other therapies mentioned above, it works for anxiety and depression too. In fact, if you can think of a problem or an issue, hypnotherapy can probably help.
It can help you make better decisions
Get increased concentration
Unleash your imagination
Feel more relaxed, and more at peace with yourself
Wipe away stress
Feel healthier in mind and body
Boost your self-belief
Sleep better and function at your peak more often
Find the stability that will allow you to truly live your life, rather than just going through the motions

Because even though nobody’s perfect, there’s nothing wrong with striving for excellence by making one small change at a time through the power of hypnosis.