The Effects of Cortisol On our Mind and Body


Depression

Over the last few months, I have been working more and more with stressed out people. I have been stunned at the age range to be honest as they have ranged from 10 – 80 years old.

I began to notice the increase early this year when many people started being made redundant in the Oil and Gas Industry in Aberdeen, where I am based. The downturn has created a huge amount of uncertainty which has lead to people feeling nervous, anxious, stressed and depressed and the knock on effects are quite significant. Many of my clients this year, on top of the initial stress have become insomniacs, they have either lost or gained large amounts of weight, have unexplained aches and pains, erratic mood swings, failed relationships…the list goes on.

This turns into a vicious circle, because the initial cause of the stress is still there and then the additional physical, mental and emotional symptoms add more stress into the mix and obviously compound the whole situation.

I have also recently started working with schools in Aberdeenshire running Stress Perception Workshops for both staff and pupils. It seems that the Curriculum for Excellence is creating and excellently high level of stress for all concerned and some pupils are becoming more and more stressed, depressed, suicidal and some resorting to self harming.

The self harming has also become something of a trend and there is a certain element of peer pressure to conform, and as you can imagine, this pressure is highly stressful for someone who really has no desire to self harm in the first place, yet in order to fit in they feel they have to run with the herd. This level of stress is extremely detrimental to the pupils ability to focus, concentrate, learn and absorb in formation and to remember it, this then adds more stress because they either feel they can’t pass they exams or they actually fail them. Pressure upon pressure upon pressure, until they break.

So after doing much reading, I have written this post today that I hope will help some of you to some degree or other and/or, perhaps help you help someone else.

STRESS
The stress hormone, cortisol, is a sneaky, insidious little bugger that creeps up on you. Even low levels over a long period of time can have hugely detrimental affects on your entire system of body and mind. Scientists have known for years that increased cortisol levels: interfere with learning and memory, lower immune function and bone density, increase weight gain, blood pressure, cholesterol, heart disease… and the list is significantly longer.

Chronic stress and elevated cortisol levels are also responsible for an increased risk for depression, mental illness, and lower life expectancy. Recently two separate studies were published in Science linking elevated cortisol levels as a potential trigger for mental illness and decreased resilience—especially in adolescence.

You can find research papers here:
http://www.sciencemag.org/search?site_area=sciencejournals&y=0&fulltext=Stress%20and%20mental%20illness&x=0&journalcode=sci&journalcode=sigtrans&journalcode=scitransmed&submit=yes

Our body releases cortisol through the adrenal glands in response to fear or stress as part of our fight-or-flight mechanism. The fight-or-flight mechanism is part of the general adaptation syndrome defined in 1936 by Canadian biochemist Hans Selye of McGill University in Montreal. He published his findings in a short seventy-four line article in Nature, in which he defined two types of “stress”: eustress (good stress) and distress (bad stress).

Both eustress and distress release cortisol as part of this general adaption syndrome. As soon as our fight or flight alarm system signals our body to release cortisol, your body becomes mobilised and ready for action, however, there has to be a physical release of fight or flight. Otherwise, cortisol levels build up in the blood which wreaks havoc on your mind and body.

Eustress creates a “seize-the-day” heightened state of arousal, which is exciting, invigorating and often linked with an achievable goal. Cortisol returns to normal when we’ve completed the task. Distress, or free floating anxiety, doesn’t provide any outlet for the cortisol and causes the fight-or-flight mechanism to backfire. Ironically, our own biology, which was designed to insure our survival as hunters and gatherers, is actually sabotaging our own bodies and minds in this sedentary, technology oriented age. So what can we do to put the pin back in this socially engineered hand grenade?

Fortunately, there are a few simple lifestyle choices you can make that will help you to reduce your stress, anxiety and lower your cortisol levels. Below are some tips to help you reduce your cortisol levels:

1. Regular Exercise: Martial arts and any martial arts based exercise classes, boxing, sparring, or a punching bag are fantastic ways to recreate the “fight” response by letting out aggression (without beating the crap out of anyone) and to reduce cortisol.
Any aerobic activity, like walking, jogging, swimming, biking etc are great ways to recreate the ‘flight’ outlet and burn-up cortisol.  A little bit of cardio goes a long way. Just 20-30 minutes of activity most days of the week pays huge dividends by lowering cortisol every day and in the long term.

I recommend a short burst of HIIT or High Intensity Interval Training. There are an abundance of training methods under this banner and you can find a host of them on Youtube. This gets your heart rate up high, gives minimal rest and puts your body and mind under pressure. The pay off is that your body also releases endorphins which make you feel good, so this is a form of Eustress (good stress) and is highly beneficial for you both physically and mentally.

Fear increases cortisol. Regular physical activity will decrease fear by increasing your self-confidence, resilience, and fortitude, which will reduce your cortisol levels. Yoga will have similar benefits with added benefits of mindfulness training.

If your schedule is too hectic to squeeze in a continuous exercise session, you can build up the same benefits by breaking daily activity into smaller doses. A simple way to guarantee regular activity is to build your normal routine activity into your daily exercise routine. Where possible start riding a bike to work, walking to the shops and walk at lunchtime, this also gets you out of the office and away from your desk and will get you thinking about other things instead of work. Use the stairs instead of the escalator or the lift.If you normally eat your lunch at your desk, maybe you could go to the gym at lunchtime and eat your lunch at your desk afterwards instead. All these things will add up and help you to reduce your cortisol levels throughout the day.

2. Mindfulness and Self Hypnosis: Any type of meditation will reduce anxiety and lower cortisol levels. Simply taking a few deep breaths engages the Vagus nerve which triggers a signal within your nervous system to slow heart rate, lower blood pressure and decreases cortisol. The next time you feel yourself in a stressful situation that activates your ‘Fight-or-Flight’ response take 10 deep breaths and feel your entire body relax, calm down and slow down.

Setting aside 5-15 minutes to practice mindfulness meditation or self hypnosis will develop a sense of calm throughout your nervous system, mind, and brain. There are many different types of meditation. “Meditating” doesn’t have to be a sacred or tree huggey experience. I’m often asked as to specifically what kind of meditation or self hypnosis do I use and how do I do it/use it. There are so many techniques/methods and to be honest it is best to explore and find what works for you and then refine it and make it your own. I suggest that you do more research, and fine-tune a daily meditation/self hypnosis routine that fits your schedule and personality.

3. Social Connectivity: Two studies have been published in the journal Science illustrate that social agression and isolation lead to increased levels of cortisol in mice that trigger a cascade of potential mental health problems—especially in adolescence.

Follow the link here to find theses papers and many more:
http://www.sciencemag.org/search?site_area=sciencejournals&y=0&fulltext=Social%20aggression%20and%20isolation&x=0&journalcode=sci&journalcode=sigtrans&journalcode=scitransmed&submit=yes

A team of researchers at Johns Hopkins established that elevated levels of cortisol in adolescence change the expression of numerous genes linked to mental illness in some people. They discovered that these changes in young adulthood, which is a crucial time for brain development, could cause severe mental illness in those predisposed to it. These findings, reported in the January 2013 journal Science, could have wide-reaching implications in both prevention and treatment of schizophrenia, severe depression and other mental illnesses.

Akira Sawa, M.D., Ph.D., a professor of psychiatry and behavioural sciences at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, and his team set out to simulate social isolation associated with the difficult years of adolescence in human teens. They found that isolating mice known to have a genetic predisposition for mental illness during their adolescence triggered ‘abnormal behaviours’ that continued even when returned to the group. They found that the effects of adolescent isolation lasted into the equivalent of mouse adulthood.

https://bbrfoundation.org/scientific-council/akira-sawa

“We have discovered a mechanism for how environmental factors, such as stress hormones, can affect the brain’s physiology and bring about mental illness,” says Sawa, the study leader. “We’ve shown in mice that stress in adolescence can affect the expression of a gene that codes for a key neurotransmitter related to mental function and psychiatric illness. While many genes are believed to be involved in the development of mental illness, my gut feeling is environmental factors are critically important to the process.”

To shed light on how and why some mice got better, Sawa and his team studied the link between cortisol and the release of dopamine. Sawa says the new study suggests that we need to think about better preventative care for teenagers who have mental illness in their families, including efforts to protect them from social stressors, such as neglect. Meanwhile, by understanding the flood of events that occurs when cortisol levels are elevated, researchers may be able to develop new compounds to target tough-to-treat psychiatric disorders with fewer side effects.

In another study, published on January 18, 2013 in the journal Science researchers from France revealed that mice who were subjected to aggression, by specific mice bred to be ‘bullies’ released cortisol which triggered a response that led to social aversion to all other mice. The exact cascade of neurobiological changes was complex but also involved dopamine. The researchers found that if they blocked the cortisol receptors that the ‘bullied’ mice became more resilient and no longer avoided their fellow creatures.

Close knit human bonds, whether it be family, friendship or a romantic partner, are vital for your physical and mental health at any age.  Recent studies have shown that the Vagus nerve also responds to human connectivity and physical touch to relax your parasympathetic nervous system.

The “tend-and-befriend” response is the exact opposite to “fight-or-flight”. The “tend-and-befriend” response increases oxytocin and reduces cortisol. Make an effort to spend real face-to-face time with loved ones whenever you can, however, even phone calls and Facebook can reduce cortisol if they foster a feeling of genuine connectivity.

4. Have Fun and Laugh Often: Having fun and laughing reduces cortisol levels. Dr. William Fry is an American psychiatrist who has been studying the benefits of laughter for the past 30 years and has found links to laughter and lowered levels of stress hormones. Many studies have shown the benefits of having a sense of humor, laughter and levity. Try to find ways in your daily life to laugh and joke as much as possible and you’ll lower cortisol levels. Watch your favourite comedy movie, favourite comedian or anything on Youtube for example that makes you laugh, feel good and happy, as this will begin to reduce your cortisol levels.

5. Music: Listening to Music that you love, and fits whatever mood you’re in, has been shown to lower cortisol levels. We all know the power of music to improve mood and reduce stress. Add reducing your cortisol levels as another reason to keep the music playing as a soundtrack of health and happiness in your life.

6. Quality Nutrition: What we eat and the quality of that food is important when life is good and we’re happy and content. When life throws a curve ball at you and you’re stressed, depressed, anxious and nervous, it is even more important to eat high quality nutrition.

Society has change much in recent years and life and work is becoming faster paced, we often look for the quick, easy and convenient option for food which is not necessarily the best option. So, to combat this, it is beneficial for you to look at high quality nutritional supplements that help to keep the physical symptoms of stress and anxiety at bay. When you feel good on the inside it makes you much more capable of dealing with the stresses of the outside world and one of the downsides of eating too much wheat, soft drinks, caffeine, alcohol etc, is that it puts your body’s PH out of balance and leads you into an acidic state. When your body is too acidic it promotes the growth of unhealthy bacteria, virus, fungus etc in your gut and causes joint pain and inflammation of muscles, tendons and ligaments. Also our gut becomes unable to fully and efficiently absorb the nutrients from the food we eat, which further runs down our immune system and metabolism.

When you redress that balance and return it to a slightly alkaline state, as you can see in the image below, our bodies return to a state of equilibrium that allows our gut to absorb nutrients efficiently and effectively which means we get everything we need to stay in the optimum state of health.

PH Range

Conclusion
The ripple effect of a fearful, isolated and stressed out society increases cortisol levels across the board for all of us and this creates a public health crisis and a huge drain on the economy. So, if we all work individually, and together, to reduce cortisol our levels we will all benefit and we will reduce the amount of stress hormones flowing around in our society and in individual lives.

In short, when we feel socially connected, safe, and self-reliant it reduces our cortisol levels. I hope the top tips presented above will help you make lifestyle choices that reduce your own levels of stress hormone and help you to help your friends, family work colleagues and perhaps even some strangers to reduce theirs and feel happier and healthier.

References:
https://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/the-athletes-way/201301/cortisol-why-the-stress-hormone-is-public-enemy-no-1

http://www.sciencemag.org/search?site_area=sciencejournals&y=0&fulltext=Stress%20and%20mental%20illness&x=0&journalcode=sci&journalcode=sigtrans&journalcode=scitransmed&submit=yes

http://www.sciencemag.org/search?site_area=sciencejournals&y=0&fulltext=Social%20aggression%20and%20isolation&x=0&journalcode=sci&journalcode=sigtrans&journalcode=scitransmed&submit=yes

https://bbrfoundation.org/scientific-council/akira-sawa

https://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/the-athletes-way/201312/why-is-the-teen-brain-so-vulnerable

How To Lift the Seasonal Blues


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I deal with a fairly high number of clients with depression and the symptoms that lead up to it and maintain it such as; stress, anxiety, insomnia, negative thinking and ruminating.

All these symptoms are part and parcel of daily life in lesser forms as we all experience them to some degree or other, yet when they are combined they become like a powerful magnetic force pulling you into depression.

It seems that this time of year is historically a time where a proportion of people feel depressed and there are a number of theories about this and this is a screen shot of a Google search for information on January Blues (and yes I know it’s into February already :-))

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It’s incredible that this very quickly pulls up 245,000,000 results which leaves you wondering how this can actually come about and what makes people so depressed so early in a new year.

There are many reasons, some are personal to the individual and could be based around bereavement and a fairly common occurrence around christmas is the break up of a relationship, which can obviously lead to a period of grief, loss and a degree of depression.

Below are some of the most common reasons for feeling low in January/Feb and some suggestions as to how to kickstart your positivity and motivation to turn things round for yourself.

The festive season is over and it’s back to work – no wonder January can feel like the gloomiest month of the year.

Add to that crappy weather, Christmas debts and a few failed resolutions, and it’s no surprise that some of us can fell miserable and low.

The good news is it takes less effort than you think to look at things differently and lift your mood.

Here are the top six reasons you might be feeling the January blues – and what you can do about them.

1) Weight gain over Christmas

Studies have shown that we can gain as much as five to seven pounds over the Christmas week alone.

What can You Do About It?

Festive weight gain doesn’t have to be permanent, and we can put way too much pressure on ourselves, particularly over the festive period and we often indulge even though we feel guilty about it and think, “what the hell, it’s christmas, I’ll shift the weight in January.”

We tend to exercise less and eat more during this period so it’s not rocket science really. So by maintaining your normal exercise routine and not eating everything in front of you, and yes I’m as guilty as the next man, you can break even over the festive period.

If you do indulge over christmas, then in January follow a sensible healthy eating plan with exercise, most people can lose approximately 2lb per week – that’s nearly all your Christmas weight gain in three weeks.

Another top tip is, instead of a diet, focus on your portion control as overeating at Christmas and at all the parties either side of the big day, it’s easy to continue the habit of large meals and delicious deserts and, you can even throw this in the mix during the festivities to stop you feeling so stuffed at every meal.

Cut back to three smaller meals a day and two snacks equalling around 1500 calories per day (2000 calories if you’re a man). This obviously varies from person to person and how much exercise you do and the kind of exercise. You can get a benchmark for this by asking a trainer at your local gym to help you, or you can find loads of information on the internet for BMR (Basal Metabolic Rate) This won’t necessarily be 100% accurate, it will give you a good start though and help you plan more wisely.

If you’re desperate to lose the weight at a faster rate, try the following:

  • cut out treats such as your morning coffee and muffin
  • reduce sweet snacks to once a week
  • limit alcohol because it restricts the number of calories that can be burned off.

2) General post-Christmas blues

We can all be like reluctant school kids at times and return to work with feelings of lethargy, misery and a lack of personal fulfilment.

What Can You Do About It?

If you’re already counting down the days until your summer holiday, plan more breaks into your work life. We generally spend enough bloody time there so space them out.

Try a weekend away or ‘staycationing’ – where you take leave, but enjoy time at home doing things you enjoy or just relaxing. Or why not use your annual leave for the odd spontaneous day off?

If your feelings of being fed up at work go deeper, I recommend taking a serious look at how you can improve your current role before you look for a new job. Sometimes having a chat with your manager/boss about how you can develop yourself, your role or a promotion can break the state you’re in, and your boss may be in a similar place and this could help them in the process too.

Ask yourself two questions:

  • what can you do to make your existing job more interesting?
  • what do you love most and what are your professional strengths?

The conventional wisdom of making a career change is to work out “what next?” and then make it happen – but change often happens the other way round. Make something happen at work first and then more permanent change will follow.

Ways to do this are to look at your past successes and what you’ve enjoyed doing, because these will guide you to changing the right areas of your work life.

3) New Year over-analysis

Self-reflection at this time of year can make us all focus on what’s wrong with our life, leading us to set unrealistic goals to become our ‘ideal’ person.

Small wonder, then, that a third of us lose our resolve to keep our resolutions within a week.

WHAT CAN YOU DO ABOUT IT?

Although self-improvement is important, going overboard can backfire.

To lift your morale and gain perspective, make a list of everything that is already great with your life, taking stock of all that you feel grateful for right now.

It’s healthy to feel motivated to make changes at the beginning of a New Year, and avoid the mistake of only focusing on what’s missing in your life. Instead, focus on the changes you want to bring about from a balanced and optimistic perspective.

As for mistakes – who hasn’t made them? The smart thing to do is to grasp the lesson thoroughly and move on a little bit wiser for it.

Balance your drive for change with an appreciation of the here-and-now and your sense of disillusionment will fade away.

4) Family tension over Christmas

Feeling worn down by your family is normal after Christmas. Spending an extended amount of time cooped up with your relatives is a recipe for tension, no matter how well you usually get on.

WHAT CAN YOU DO ABOUT IT?

However, It’s important to realise that all families get on each other’s nerves at Christmas. It doesn’t mean you’re all dysfunctional or don’t love each other, it’s more that you’ve just spent too much time together.

It’s impotent though to recuperate by first resolving any holiday conflicts that have lingered on, because it’s these that will keep on making you feel miserable and stressed into January and beyond.

If you’ve had a big row over something, be the bigger person and back down. Why not consider an old-fashioned letter in the post to apologise or a thoughtful gift?

You will feel much happier if you try to build bridges rather than hang onto a grudge or sense of injustice.

Once you’ve found closure, forget what’s happened and schedule in some much-needed ‘me time’, remembering it’s a long time before you have to do it all again! A thought worth smiling about 🙂

5) Money worries after Christmas with a recession looming

You’ve spent too much at Christmas and you’re worried about your job because the UK economy is still a bit slow and more cuts promised by the government in 2014.

WHAT CAN YOU DO ABOUT IT?

The changing economic situation could actually be a good chance for everyone to get on top of their spending and debt.

Keep a note of your daily expenditure and focus on how you feel when you spend. This can help you adopt healthier habits that will then improve your financial situation. And, while you shouldn’t ignore your money problems, don’t dwell on your fears.

Ask yourself how you want your financial life to look this year and focus on how you’ll feel when you get the results you want.

By expecting positive results and working on changing your money habits for good, you can help change your financial future.

6) It’s cold and dark outside

Seasonal affective disorder (SAD), or the winter blues, is thought to affect up to two million people in the UK as the lack of natural sunlight leads us to feel depressed and lethargic.

WHAT CAN YOU DO ABOUT IT?

There is hope: the days are already getting longer, and January averages less rain and more hours of sunshine than December. although the last couple of months have been a bit of an exception, all right a lot of an exception for some parts of the UK.

Boost your mood by making a lunchtime walk a daily habit. Just 30 minutes of natural light, even weak winter sunlight, can be enough to make you feel happier and energised.

Don’t let the wintry weather put you off your exercise routine either. When it’s cold and dark outside, it is much more tempting to curl up on the sofa than to put on your tracksuit and brave the elements, and when you do get off your arse and do something, the exercise leaves you happier and more motivated filling you with positive feelings which will lift your mood and boost your motivation to do more.

Create a backup plan, so, if it is impossible to exercise outside due to crap weather conditions, you know what you can do as a good alternative. Swimming is a great option if it’s too rainy to run and you can always make use of your garage, like I do, and do a bodyweight circuit which needs absolutely no equipment.

I hope this post has been useful for you and helps bring a little clarity to why you may be feeling low and what you can do to shift it round.

Feel free to leave your thoughts and comments.

Have a brilliant week.

Simon