Mind-Matters Podcast #2: Tamsin Astor


This week started with an interview for my Mind-Matters Podcast and in this second epsiode I talk to Tamsin Astor PhD who talks about dealing with her youngest son being diagnosed at the age of just 2 with Burkitt’s Lymphoma, whihc is a cancer of the lymphatic system.

She talks about the struggle to get her concerns heard and recognised by the doctors, hearing the diagnisis and dealing with the whole treatment process and being strong for her son, her family and herself.

She talks later about her divorce and how now, ten years on her son is clear and healthy and how they are planning a ten year celebration of him being clear.

It’s a highly emotive story, hugely inspirational and I hope you get as much from it as I have.

You can find out more about Tamsin by going to her website www.tamsinastor.com

Click on the link below to go to the Podcast and click on episode 2 to hear the interview with Tamsin.

Enjoy

Mind-Matters Podcast

Changes In Treatment Approaches For PTSD


Below is an article taken from the APA website that I find extremely interesting and reassuring that the military is not restricting themselves to CBT and EMDR in treating serving personnel struggling with PTSD.

A psychodynamic treatment for PTSD shows promise for soldiers
March 2012, Vol 43, No. 3
Print version: page 11

PTSD
While cognitive-behavioral therapy remains the most well-researched treatment for post-traumatic stress disorder, it doesn’t help all patients. That’s especially true for service members who have been perpetrators as well as victims of violence, says Russell B. Carr, MD, an Army psychiatrist.
“It’s a much more complicated experience, and they often feel a lot of shame in addition to the usual PTSD symptoms,” he says.

For the past six years, Carr has been working with soldiers who haven’t responded to cognitive-behavioral therapy, and he’s developed a new treatment rooted in intersubjective systems theory. This modern take on psychoanalysis pioneered by Robert Stolorow, PhD, posits that the heart of trauma is shame and isolation.
Carr’s therapy, described in the October 2011 issue of Psychoanalytic Psychology, has shown promise helping soldiers who haven’t responded to CBT by addressing the existential dread dredged up by trauma, and the feeling that their entire world has lost meaning. Though Carr’s goals are ambitious, his intervention is relatively short—requiring twice-weekly sessions for up to three months. As a result, the therapist must clearly define goals, keep conversations on track and quickly establish rapport with clients, Carr found.

Short-term therapy—which is typical of CBT, but less common with psychoanalytic approaches—is often the only option in military settings, he says.
“In the military, there is frequently the situation where a patient or therapist is leaving soon,” says Carr. “It’s a transient population, and it limits the length of time we have to work together.”

A key part of intersubjective therapy is helping clients put their feelings around traumatic experiences into words. These feelings aren’t always negative. One patient described in the article found he enjoyed the smell of burning human flesh, and was later horrified and ashamed of his initial reaction. By expressing empathy and not rejecting the soldier, Carr helped the soldier process the experience and reconnect with the civilian world.

Convincing soldiers that a therapist—as well as friends and family—can understand a little of what they are going through lessens their PTSD symptoms, Carr found. In some cases, soldiers even learn from the experience, he says. “Recognizing the fragility of life, you can refocus on what’s important to you, and not waste time on things that aren’t.”
—S. Dingfelder

Hypnosis and Childbirth


The following studies were conducted and highlight ways that hypnosis can be used and the clinical and scientific outcomes.


Study 1: Hypnosis Allows for Less Medication and Less Labor Pains
Hypnosis for Pain Relief in Labor And Childbirth: A Systematic Review.
http://bja.oxfordjournals.org/content/93/4/505.full.pdf

Results: Women who used hypnosis required significantly less pain medication. This study also found that women who used hypnosis reported having less severe labor pains.

Notes: This study reviewed a number of studies where hypnosis was used during pregnancy and childbirth.

British Journal of Anesthesia. 2004 Oct;93(4):505-11. Epub 2004 Jul 26
By: A. M. Cyna, G. L. McAuliffe, M. I. Andrew
Author Affiliations: 1 Department of Women’s Anesthesia, Women’s and Children’s Hospital, Adelaide, South Australia 5006, Australia. 2 Department of Anesthesia, Lyell McEwin Hospital, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia


Study 2: Hypnosis – To Shorten Labor, Reduce medication to control pain or to lengthen pregnancy if expectant mother goes into labor too early
Evidence-Based Clinical Hypnosis in Obstetrics, Labor and Delivery, and Preterm Labor.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17558723

Results: The authors report that the use of hypnosis has been proven to shorten Stage 1 and 2 of labour, while also leading to a significant reduction in the use of medication to control the pain. The authors also note that hypnosis has been used to significantly prolong the length of pregnancy when an expectant mother goes into labour too early.

Notes: This paper reviews various academic studies conducted on the use of hypnosis in labour and delivery.

Int Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, Vol. 55, No. 3, July 2007
By: D. Brown, D. C. Hammond, Private Practice, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada


Study 3: Hypnosis – Infertility
Infertility and Pregnancy Loss: Hypnotic Interventions for Reproductive Challenges. Healing from within: The use of hypnosis in women’s health care (pp. 191-212)2000.
http://psycnet.apa.org/books/10377/009

Notes: This study reports on the use of hypnosis and imagery-based techniques to help women feel more empowered when dealing with miscarriages and infertility. Based on 15 years of experience in this field, the author concludes that hypnosis can really help at three points in the infertility process. First, it can bring a greater acceptance of the diagnosis. Second, it can help the patient cope more easily with infertility treatments. And third, it can help them to deal with any miscarriages.

By: Susan G. Mikesell


Study 4: Hypnosis – To Help Embryo Transfer at Fertility Clinic
Impact of Hypnosis During Embryo Transfer on the Outcome of In Vitro Fertilization-Embryo Transfer: A Case-Control Study.
http://www.nwmedicalhypnosis.com/documents/Impact%20of%20hypnosis%20during%20embryo%20transfer.pdf

Results: Those who received hypnosis had a 30.2% implantation rate compared with only 14.4% in the control group. This study concluded that not only did hypnosis help to double the rate of embryonic implantation, but it also helped to improve the subject’s attitude towards fertility treatment.

Notes: This study compared two groups of women undergoing embryo transfer (ET) at an Israeli fertility clinic. Ninety-eight women used hypnosis to help them during this process and 96 acted as the control group and followed the normal procedures. During the pre-hypnosis session, every patient was requested to choose a very pleasant life experience to relive. The hypnotic state was induced by the same hypnosis therapist using eye fixation, relaxation, and permissive and indirect suggestions. It was suggested that the patient compare the procedure of ET with the reception of long-awaited and very welcome guests. Only when the patient was thought to be at an adequate trance level (approx.. 10 minutes) was the ET procedure initiated. After ET, and previous to dehypnotization, the patient was given posthypnotic suggestions to produce calm, relaxation, and optimism for the future.

Fertility and Sterility. 2006 May
E. Levitas, A. Parmet, E. Lunenfeld, Y. Bentov, E. Burstein, M. Friger, G. Potashnik
Author Affiliations: a Fertility and IVF Unit, b Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Soroka University Medical Center, and c Department of Epidemiology, Faculty of Health Sciences, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva, Israel


Study 5: Self-Hypnosis for Labor and Childbirth
Antenatal self-hypnosis for labour and childbirth: A pilot study
http://digital.library.adelaide.edu.au/dspace/handle/2440/23183

Results: Seventy-seven antenatal women consecutively taught self-hypnosis in preparation for childbirth were compared with 3,249 parity and gestational age matched controls. Of the women taught antenatal self-hypnosis, nulliparous parturients used fewer epidurals: 36% (18/50) compared with 53% (765/1436) of controls (RR 0.68 [95% CI 0.47-0.98]); and required less augmentation: 18% (9/50) vs 36% (523/1436) (RR 0.48 [95%CI 0.27-0.90]). Conclusions: Our clinical findings are consistent with recent meta-analyses showing beneficial outcomes associated with the use of hypnosis in childbirth.

Notes: The institute where this study took place had used antenatal training in self-hypnosis for over three years as a tool to provide relaxation, anxiolysis and analgesia for women in labor. To assess the effects of hypnotherapy, they prospectively collected data related to the use of hypnosis in preparation for childbirth, and compared the birth outcomes of women experiencing antenatal hypnosis with parity and gestational age matched controls. Methods: Prospective data about women taught self-hypnosis in preparation for childbirth were collected between August 2002 and August 2004. Birth outcome data of women using hypnosis were compared with routinely collected retrospective data from parity and gestational age matched women delivering after 37 weeks gestation during 2003.

Anaesthesia and Intensive Care, 2006; 34 (4):464-469
By: Allan Michael Cyna, Marion I. Andrew, Georgina L. McAuliffe


Study 6: Effect of Hypnosis on Labor and Birth Outcomes (focuses on pregnant adolescents)
The Effects of Hypnosis on the Labor Processes and Birth Outcomes of Pregnant Adolescents
http://www.fourseas.co.uk/chipreg/researchpregnancy.html
Submitted, revised, February 13, 2001. Journal of Family Practice
By: Alice A. Martin, PhD; Paul G. Schauble, PhD; Surekha H. Rai, PhD; R. Whit Curry Jr, MD, Gainesville, Florida

Results: When labor and delivery outcome measures were compared in the 2 groups, significant differences favoring the hypnosis intervention group were found in the number of complicated deliveries, surgical procedures, and length of hospital stay. Only one patient in the hypnosis group had a hospital stay of more than 2 days compared with 8 patients in the control group (P=.008). None of the 22 patients in the hypnosis group experienced surgical intervention compared with 12 of the 20 patients in the control group (P=.000). Twelve patients in the hypnosis group experienced complications compared with 17 in the control group (P=.047). Although consistently fewer patients in the hypnosis group used anesthesia (10 vs 14), Pitocin (2 vs 6), or postpartum medication (7 vs 11), and fewer had infants admitted to the NICU (1 vs 5), statistical analysis was non-significant. This study provides support for the use of hypnosis to aid in preparation of obstetric patients for labor and delivery. The reduction of complications, surgery, and hospital stay show direct medical benefit to mother and child and suggest the potential for a corresponding cost-saving benefit.

Notes: This study evaluated how childbirth preparation incorporating hypnotic techniques affected the labor processes and birth outcomes of pregnant adolescents. The study included 42 teenaged patients receiving prenatal treatment at a county public health department before their 24th week of pregnancy. They were randomly assigned to either a treatment group receiving a childbirth preparation protocol under hypnosis or a control group receiving supportive counseling. The hypnosis focused on the educational preparation of the patient while in hypnosis to create the expectation of a normal labor and delivery, develop a conditioned response of comfort and confidence, and facilitate an increased sense of control in achieving a healthy delivery. The subjects in the treatment group received a 4-session sequence of standard hypnotic interventions incorporating childbirth preparation information (in which they were instructed in the methods and benefits of focused relaxation and imagery to increase the likelihood of a safe and relatively pain-free delivery.) The sessions provided an opportunity to experience and practice hypnotic induction and deep relaxation. The suggestions directed toward the expectant mothers during the hypnotic state focused on the conceptualization of pregnancy and childbirth as a healthy natural process. Suggestions were also given to help the patient respond to possible complications, in the event they might occur. These suggestions were designed to increase the patient’s sense of trust in her physician and her confidence in her own ability to manage anxiety and discomfort. Hypnotic inductions also included ego-strengthening techniques and suggestions for a relatively discomfort-free delivery and suggestions for the application of the hypnotic techniques to other stressful periods in their lives. In each session the patients were given the opportunity to ask any questions of concern regarding the method or the pregnancy.


Study 7: Hypnosis to Help Achieve Uncomplicated Birth
Hypnosis to Facilitate Uncomplicated Birth
http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/00029157.2004.10403614#preview

Results: Women receiving prenatal hypnosis had significantly better outcomes than women who did not. Further assessment suggested that hypnosis worked by preventing negative emotional factors from leading to a complicated birth outcome. Attention only was associated with minimal differences in outcome over the no-contact group. Concludes that the routine prenatal use of hypnosis could improve obstetric outcome.

Notes: The purpose of this study was to determine if prenatal hypnosis could facilitate uncomplicated birth. Following a psychosocial assessment, 520 pregnant women in their first or second trimester of pregnancy were randomized to receiving prenatal hypnosis or attention-only groups. The goal of the hypnosis was to reduce fear of birth and parenthood; to reduce anxiety; to reduce stress; to identify specific fears that might complicate the labor process (addressing them whenever possible); and to prepare women for the experience of labor. The attention-only group was matched to a no-contact comparison group.

American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, Volume 46, Issue 4, 2004, pages 299-312
By: Lewis E. Mehl-Madrona MD, PhDa, University of Arizona College of Medicine


Study 8: Self-Hypnosis for Pain Relief During Labor
The Effect of Hypnosis on Pain Relief During Labor and Childbirth in Iranian Pregnant Women

http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/00207140802665435#preview

Results: Women described their feelings about hypnosis during labor as: a sense of relief and consolation, self-confidence, satisfaction, lack of suffering labor pain, changing the feeling of pain into one of pressure, a decrease in fear of natural childbirth, lack of tiredness, and lack of anxiety. They expressed increased concentration on the uterus and cervical muscle, awareness of all the stages of labor, and having “positive thoughts.” Births were perceived as being very satisfactory compared to their previous experiences.

Notes: This study describes the effect of hypnosis on pain relief during labor and childbirth. Using a qualitative approach, 6 pregnant women were trained to use self-hypnosis for labor. Outcomes were analyzed using Colaizzi’s procedure.

International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, Volume 57, Issue 2, 2009 pages 174-183
By: Marzieh Abbasia, Fery Ghazia, Ann Barlow-Harrison, Middelsex University, Lond, United Kingdom
Mehrdad Sheikhvatanb, Medical Sciences/Univeristy of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
Fatemeh Mohammadyaric, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

I hope you found this article interesting and useful and please feel free to share.

Simon Maryan

 

Hypnosis and Fear of Dentists


stay-connectd

Unsurprisingly for many of you, a fear of dentists and dental treatment is a very common phobia in the UK and elsewhere around the world.

  • Almost half of UK adults have a fear of the dentist.
  • 12% of these suffers from an extreme dental anxiety.
  • Women are more likely to suffer from extreme dental anxiety than men.
  • Visiting the Dentist is ranked number one (22%) for making people nervous, even more popular than heights (19%).

Direct experience is the most common way people develop dental fears. Most people report that their dental fear began after a traumatic, difficult, and/or painful dental experience. However, painful or traumatic, dental experiences alone do not explain why people develop dental phobia. The perceived manner of the dentist is an important variable. Dentists who were considered “impersonal”, “uncaring”, “uninterested” or “cold” may develop high dental fear in patients, even in the absence of painful experiences, whereas some patients who had had painful experiences failed to develop dental fear if they perceived their dentist as caring and warm.

Indirect experiences

  • Vicarious learning
  • Dental fear may develop as people hear about others’ traumatic experiences or negative views of dentistry (vicarious learning).
  • Mass media

The negative portrayal of dentistry in mass media and cartoons may also contribute to the development of dental fear. This negative portrayal may come from such films as the 1932 comedy film The Dentist, the unrelated horror film The Dentist, its sequel, the 1933 cartoon The Merry Old Soul, and Marathon Man (the antagonist, Dr. Christian Szell, is a Nazi war criminal who tortures with dental equipment).

Stimulus Generalisation

Dental fear may develop as a result of a previous traumatic experience in a non-dental context. For example, bad experiences with doctors or hospital environments may lead people to fear white coats and antiseptic smells, which is one reason why dentists nowadays often choose to wear less “threatening” apparel. People who have been sexually, physically or emotionally abused may also find the dental situation threatening.

Helplessness and Perceived Lack of Control

If a person believes that they have no means of influencing a negative event, they will experience the feeling of helplessness. Research has shown that a perception of lack of control leads to fear. The opposite belief, that one does have control, can lead to lessened fear. For example, the belief that the dentist will stop when the patient gives a stop signal lessens fear. Helplessness and lack of control may also result from direct experiences, for example an incident where a dentist wouldn’t stop even when the person was in obvious pain.

Diagnosis of Phobia
Phobia of dental care is sometimes diagnosed using a fear measurement instrument like Corah’s Dental Anxiety Scale or the Modified Dental Anxiety Scale

It would be very interesting to read your experiences of dentists and how you feel about your 6 monthly appointment. In the meantime here are some case studies and also additional references at the end.

 

Study 1: Hypnosis in Pediatric Dental Treatment Using elements of hypnosis prior to or during pediatric dental treatment.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23635894

Results: A review of the relevant research and literature shows that the advantages of using hypnotic elements and hypnosis in pediatric dentistry are evident.

Notes: Most dental practitioners are familiar with pediatric patients expressing dental fear or anxiety. Occasionally, the dentist may encounter a situation where all behavioral techniques fail, while, for some reason, premedication or general anesthesia are contraindicated or rejected by the patient or his/her parents and a different approach is required. Hypnosis may solve the problem in some cases. The purpose of this study was to review the literature about techniques that use elements of hypnosis and hypnotic techniques prior to or during pediatric dental treatment. There is a limited amount of literature regarding the use of hypnosis and hypnotic elements in pediatric dentistry. Induction techniques, reframing, distraction, imagery suggestions, and hypnosis are identified, although mostly anecdotally.

Pediatr Dent. 2013 Jan-Feb;35(1):33-6
By: B. Peretz, R. Bercovich, S. Blumer, Department of Pediatric Dentistry, The Maurice and Gabriela Goldschleger School of Dental Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel

Study 2: Hypnosis for Dental Procedure Pain
Effects of Hypnosis as an Adjunct to Intravenous Sedation for Third Molar Extraction: A Randomized, Blind, Controlled Study
http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/00207140903310782?journalCode=nhyp20#preview

Results: Intraoperative Propofol administration, patient postoperative pain ratings, and postoperative prescription pain reliever consumption were all significantly reduced in the hypnosis treatment group compared to the control group.

Notes: This study aimed to evaluate the use of hypnosis/therapeutic suggestion as an adjunct to intravenous (IV) sedation in patients having 3rd molar removal in an outpatient setting. The patients were randomly assigned to a treatment (n = 46) or control (n = 54) group. The treatment group listened to a rapid conversational induction and therapeutic suggestions via headphones throughout the entire surgical procedure along with a standard sedation dose of intravenous anesthetic. The control group listened to only music without any hypnotic intervention. Intraoperative Propofol administration, patient postoperative pain ratings, and postoperative prescription pain reliever consumption were all significantly reduced in the treatment compared to the control group. Implications of these results are discussed.

International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, Volume 58, Issue 1, 2009
By: Edward F. Mackey, West Chester University of Pennsylvania, West Chester, Pennsylvania, USA

Study 3: Use of Imagery to Make Easier Injection of Anesthesia for Dental Work
The use of imagery suggestions during administration of local anesthetic in pediatric dental patients.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10997242

Results: The authors of this study conclude that imaging/imagery techniques may be successfully utilized in the administration of local anesthesia to young children (from three years of age) in an effort to mitigate untoward, pain-related stress.

Notes: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of suggestion before and during the administration of local anesthesia to children. Eighty children between the ages of three and sixteen years and who required at least one injection of local anesthesia were monitored. Retrospective examinations of their dental records provided the information regarding the behavior and dental treatment histories of the patients. All other data were provided through observation during the dental treatment phase. During the first treatment session, before the injection, each child was asked to select a favorite, pleasant memory or image. Where children had difficulty in identifying an image, one was proposed by the dentist. After an image had been chosen, the patients were asked to concentrate on the image and to visualize it during the procedure. The majority of children had chosen their own images, and significantly visualized the same images throughout the injection procedures. Image selection and visualization had no association with gender, age, the parent’s assessment of the child’s behavior, previous dental experience, behavior (both past and present) or, management techniques (both past and present).

ASDC J Dent Child. 2000 Jul-Aug;67(4):263-7, 231
By: B. Peretz, E. Bimstein, Department of Pediatric Dentistry, Hebrew University, Hadassah School of Dental Medicine, Jerusalem, Israel

References

  1. Bracha HS, Vega EM, Vega CB (2006). “Posttraumatic dental-care anxiety (PTDA): Is “dental phobia” a misnomer?” (PDF). Hawaii Dent J. 37 (5): 17–9. PMID 17152624.
  2. Milgrom P, Weinstein P, Getz T (1995). Treating Fearful Dental Patients: A Patient Management Handbook (2nd ed.). Seattle, Wash.: University of Washington, Continuing Dental Education. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0528.1996.tb00893.x. ISBN 1-880291-01-0.
  3. Erten H, Akarslan ZZ, Bodrumlu E (April 2006). “Dental fear and anxiety levels of patients attending a dental clinic”. Quintessence Int. 37 (4): 304–10. PMID 16594362.
  4. Stabholz A, Peretz B (April 1999). “Dental anxiety among patients prior to different dental treatments”. Int Dent J. 49 (2): 90–4. doi:10.1111/j.1875-595x.1999.tb00514.x. PMID 10858738
  5. Locker D, Shapiro D, Liddell A (June 1996). “Negative dental experiences and their relationship to dental anxiety”. Community Dent Health. 13 (2): 86–92. PMID 8763138
  6. Bernstein DA, Kleinknecht RA, Alexander LD (1979). “Antecedents of dental fear”. J Public Health Dent. 39 (2): 113–24. doi:10.1111/j.1752-7325.1979.tb02932.x. PMID 287803
  7. Hilton IV, Stephen S, Barker JC, Weintraub JA (December 2007). “Cultural factors and children’s oral health care: a qualitative study of carers of young children”. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol. 35 (6): 429–38. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0528.2006.00356.x. PMID 18039284
  8. http://www.dentalfearcentral.org/abuse_survivors.html
  9. Lundgren J, Carlsson SG, Berggren U (May 2006). “Relaxation versus cognitive therapies for dental fear—a psychophysiological approach”. Health Psychol. 25 (3): 267–73. doi:10.1037/0278-6133.25.3.267. PMID 16719597

Life Design


For a long time I thought I was happy with my job, I was doing what I’d set to do in joining the Royal Marines. I worked with like-minded people, got paid to stay exceptionally fit, got fed four times a day and was provided with a roof over my head. The trade-off was that I was expected to do what I was told do whether I liked it or not and, some of the things I was asked to do I really didn’t like. However I was still happy living my dream.

Or so I thought.

Continue reading Life Design

Hypnosis and Erectile Dysfunction


causes-and-symptoms-of-erectile-dysfunction

Erectile dysfunction is a very common condition, particularly in older men. It is estimated that half of all men between the ages of 40 and 70 will have it to some degree.

Why does erectile dysfunction happen?
Erectile dysfunction can have a range of causes, both physical and psychological. Physical causes include: Continue reading Hypnosis and Erectile Dysfunction

Hypnosis and the Brain – Body Connection


I found this article on research at Stanford University School of Medicine that has identified three specific areas of the brain that are altered by hypnosis. It goes on to explain how effective hypnosis can be in using our minds to control our perception and our bodies and also, that there is a brain-body connection that helps the brain process and control what’s going on in the body.

So many benefits to using hypnosis to your advantage.

http://med.stanford.edu/news/all-news/2016/07/study-identifies-brain-areas-altered-during-hypnotic-trances.html

Key to Your Mind.001

Hypnosis and Diabetes


Diabetes

Diabetes is a condition where the amount of glucose in your blood is too high because the body cannot use it properly.

This is because your pancreas either doesn’t produce any insulin, or not enough insulin, to help glucose enter your body’s cells, or the insulin that is produced does not work properly (known as insulin resistance).

Continue reading Hypnosis and Diabetes

A Day In the Life of a Dad With Combat Related PTSD


img_0257

I have spoken to and worked with many serving military personnel and veterans with PTSD and have heard some horrific stories that match some of my own. I never ask for any content of stories and just allow them to tell me what they need to say out loud, in their own way.

There are surprisingly innocuous triggers for flash backs, which is one of the many frustrating aspects of PTSD. Those who suffer with it find themselves getting lost in a flash back from minor little daily events that have no apparent connection to anything they have experienced. This recollection is from someone with PTSD and will hopefully go someway to help you understand what PTSD sufferers can be going through on a daily basis.

Continue reading A Day In the Life of a Dad With Combat Related PTSD

Hypnosis and Control of Bleeding and Haemophilia


There are numerous accounts of the human ability to affect blood flow using mind-body techniques. Stories such as Milton Erickson, MDʼs well known account of using hypnosis to control severe bleeding in his hemophiliac son after an accident, to Martin Rossman, MDʼs less well known but equally dramatic story of using hypnosis in the Emergency Room with a woman to stop her haemorrhaging. However, the widespread use of techniques such as Guided Imagery and Hypnosis for blood control will not be embraced by the medical community without hard science to back up the contentions.

Fortunately, several published studies present corroborating evidence. Biofeedback training, of course, has a long and well-documented history of being able to affect perfusion.

A recent study showed that biofeedback-assisted relaxation training was 87.5% effective in increasing peripheral perfusion (and, thereby, healing) in patients with foot ulcers. The field of hypnosis also has many studies related to pain management in surgery, and studies showing hypnosisʼ ability to affect blood flow are beginning to show up in the literature. Studies with burn patients have shown that hypnosis can significantly improve wound healing by increasing blood flow to the affected area. Subjects were able to achieve significant increases in hand warming using hypnotically-induced vasodilation. Haemo-dynamic measurements of systolic blood pressure, arterial blood flow, and resistance all changed appropriately when hypnotised subjects believed they were donating blood.

As an indication that these so-called autonomic functions can be patient controlled during surgery, one matched, controlled study of maxillofacial surgery patients receiving pre-, post- and/or peri-operative hypnotic suggestion had up to a 30% reduction in blood loss. The health benefits to the patient and savings to hospitals with these kinds of blood loss reductions are considerable. A further study showed that intra-operative and post-op capillary bleeding can be reduced using hypnosis, even in haemophiliac dental patients.

A most impressive study is one in which 121 patients used hypnosedation during endocrine surgical procedures. It has become an expectation from patients who use mind-body modalities for these patients needed significantly less pain medication. Of even greater implication, however, is the fact that all surgeons in these 121 procedures reported better operating conditions (estimated by the visual analog scale), and the researchers attributed this to reduced bleeding in the operative field. Furthermore, no patients were required to convert to general anesthesia during any of the procedures.

These and other factors — high patient satisfaction, better surgical convalescence, turn beds faster, lower use of resources, fewer demands on personnel, fewer follow-up visits by physicians — reduce the socio-economic impact of patient treatment, especially in the area of in- patient surgery.

References

Rice B, Kalker AJ, Schindler JV, Dixon RM. “Effect of biofeedback-assisted relaxation training on foot ulcer healing.” J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 2001 Mar;91(3):132-41.
Moore L and Kaplan J. Hypnotically Accelerated Burn Wound Healing. Am J Clin Hypn 1983 Jul;26(1):16-9.

Moore LE, Wiesner SL. Hypnotically-induced vasodilation in the treatment of repetitive strain injuries. Am J Clin Hypn 1996 Oct;39(2):97-104. Casiglia E, Mazza A, Ginocchio G, Onesto C, Pessina AC, Rossi A, Cavatton G, Marotti A. “Hemodynamics following real and hypnosis- simulated phlebotomy.” Am J Clin Hypn 1997 Jul;40(1):368-75.

Enqvist B, von Konow L, Bystedt H. “Pre- and perioperative suggestion in maxillofacial surgery: effects on blood loss and recovery.” Int J Clin Exp Hypn 1995 Jul;43(3):284-94.
Lucas ON. “The use of hypnosis in hemophilia dental care.” Ann N Y Acad Sci 1975 Jan 20;240:263-6.
Meurisse M. Faymonville ME, Joris J, Nguyen Dang D, Defechereux T, Hamoir E. “Service de Chirurgie des Glandes Endocrines et Transplantation, Centre

Hospitalier Universitaire de Liege, Belgique.” Ann Endocrinol (Paris) 1996;57(6):494-501.

Haemophilia

Study 1: Suggestions Reduce Blood Loss in Surgery
Preoperative Instructions for Decreased Bleeding During Spine Surgery
http://journals.lww.com/anesthesiology/Citation/1986/09001/Preoperative_Instructions_for_Decreased_Bleeding.244.aspx

Results: Those who were given preoperative suggestions for the blood to move away during surgery – so the body could conserve blood – lost significantly less blood than those in both the control and relaxation groups.

Notes: Ninety-two patients who were scheduled for spinal surgery were randomly divided into three groups. One served as the control, the second were given suggestions for relaxation, while the third were given preoperative suggestions that the blood would leave the area where the surgery was to take place at the start of the operation and then remain away until it was complete. This third group was also given suggestions about the importance of blood conservation. The authors note that generally blood loss during surgical procedures can vary wildly between different patients and is unpredictable. For certain types of surgeries, this blood loss often requires transfusions. Giving preoperative suggestions about decreased bleeding could help with these issues.

Anaesthesiology, Sept. 1986, Vol.65 A246
By: H. L. Bennett, Ph.D., D. R. Benson, D. A. Kuiken, Dept. of Anesthesiology and Orthopedic Surgery, UC Davis Medical Center, Sacramento California

Study 2: Case Study – Hypnosis to Treat Gastrointestinal Bleeding
Hypnotic Control of Upper Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage: A Case Report
http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/00029157.1984.10402584?journalCode=ujhy20

Results: After treatment with hypnosis, the patient (who was suffering from upper gastrointestinal tract bleeding) was discharged from the hospital without the need for surgical intervention.

Notes: This paper presents the successful treatment with hypnosis of a patient with upper gastrointestinal tract bleeding. After treatment, the patient was discharged from the hospital without the need for surgical intervention.

American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, Volume 27, Issue 1, 1984
By: Emil G. Bishay M.D.a, Grant Stevensa and Chingmuh Lee, UCLA School of Medicine

Hemophilia Disorder Disease Word in Blood Stream in Red Cells

Study 3: Hypnosis Helps Hemophiliacs Avoid Transfusions, Decreases Risk of Other Health Problems, and Increases Quality of Life
The Use of Hypnosis with Hemophilia
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1289965

Results: The hemophiliacs using hypnosis realized a reduction in the need for transfusions, which results in a decrease in the development of inhibitors, less potential exposure to dangers such as the AIDS virus and a lower incidence of liver and kidney damage. A decrease in the frequency and severity of bleeding episodes results in less morbidity and better coping in the face of HIV infection. Self-hypnosis has provided many bleeders with increased feelings of control and confidence and improved the quality of their lives.

Notes: The Colorado Health Sciences Center’s program to treat hemophiliacs using hypnosis is described.

Psychiatr Med. 1992;10(4):89-98
By: W. LaBaw, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Denver

Study 4: Hypnosis for Hemophilia Dental Care to Decrease Bleeding
The Use of Hypnosis in Hemophilia Dental Care
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1749-6632.1975.tb53358.x/abstract

Results: This paper discusses how hypnosis can decrease bleeding during dental care and lower the anxiety of hemophiliacs about dental procedures.

Notes: The author describes the experiences of a dental clinic that uses hypnosis for hemophiliacs undergoing dental surgical procedures.

Ann N Y Acad Sci,1975 , 240;263-6, Volume 240
By: Oscar N. Lucas, University of Oregon Dental School

Hypnotic blood flow control

Study 5: Hypnosis to Reduce Blood Loss in Maxillofacial (Neck, Head, Jaw, etc.) Surgery
Pre and perioperative suggestion in maxillofacial surgery: Effects on blood loss and recovery
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7635580

Results: The patients who received hypnotic suggestions were compared to a group of matched control patients. The patients who received preoperative hypnotic suggestions exhibited a 30% reduction in blood loss. A 26% reduction in blood loss was shown in the group of patients receiving pre- and perioperative suggestions, and the group of patients receiving perioperative suggestions only showed a 9% reduction in blood loss.

Notes: The basic assumption underlying the present study was that emotional factors may influence not only recovery but also blood loss and blood pressure in maxillofacial surgery patients, where the surgery was performed under general anesthesia. Eighteen patients (group 1) were administered a hypnosis tape containing preoperative therapeutic suggestions, 18 patients (group 2) were administered hypnosis tapes containing pre- and perioperative (note “perioperative” generally means the time of hospitalization until discharge) suggestions, and 24 patients (group 3) were administered a hypnosis tape containing perioperative suggestions only. Groups 1 and 2 listened to the audiotape 1-2 times daily for the two weeks before surgery. The audiotapes provided therapeutic suggestions for improved healing, less bleeding, lower blood pressure, and faster recovery. The audiotape was 17 minutes in length. During surgery, group 2 also heard an audiotape, which contained similar positive therapeutic suggestions.

Int J Clin Exp Hypn. 1995 Jul;43(3):284-94
By: B. Enqvist, L. von Konow, H. Bystedt, Eastman Institute, Stockholm, Sweden